Cracker (the white man with the whip)

Cracker

(The white man and the whip, the origin of why white people are called crackers) 

By Chance Kelsey, chancellorfiles.com

 Chance: The Term Cracker originated in England, it was used to describe a person was a braggart or who told jokes. This is where the expression crack a joke originated. The term cracker was in use during Elizabethan times to describe braggarts who liked to boast. The Defintion of Braggart – (One given to loud, empty boasting; a bragger). The elizabethan time period was during 1500s during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The Elizabethan Era is the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. It was the height of the English Renaissance, and saw the flowering of English literature and poetry. This was also the time during which Elizabethan theatre flourished and William Shakespeare, among others, composed plays that broke away from England’s past style of plays.

A cracker during the times of America slavery was used to describe a white person who was very poor and uneducated. These poor and uneducated whites were looked down upon and despised by whites who were middle class or wealthy — also during the times of slavery the term cracker was used to refer to any white person from a southern state. Some whites living down South were glad to be called crackers because it let whites living in the Northern states know that the Southern whites were proud to be Southerners, and being called a cracker from the south was an honor.        

The black slaves got the term cracker from hearing other whites refer to poor whites as being crackers.

When a slave’s hands were tied to a tree and the slave was whipped with a whip the white man with the whip before he would throw it — he would move his wrist up and down real fast this motion produced a cracking sound. So the black slaves started calling the overseer the cracker, an overseer was a person who would watch the slaves out in the field working. He was in charge of making sure the slaves did their jobs. He was like an Egyptian task master who would watch over the Hebrew slaves during the time when Hebrews were slaves in ancient Egypt.

As time went on during the days of slavery white plantation owners put blacks whom they could trust to supervise blacks working in the field. Every since the times of slavery — white men have been called crackers by blacks. Blacks got the term from whites, but black slaves also noticed, that the whip made a cracking sound, and this caused them to use the term cracker even more frequently when talking among themselves about whites even though they had already learned the term cracker from whites. Cracker is used as a racial epithet to insult a white man or white woman. Sometimes whites will joke among themselves by calling each other crackers.

 Written during the 21st century by Chance

References

page 2 References About Cracker  

 Read Below

Crackers

Etymology From A Wikipedia reference
Etymology
There are various theories about the origin of the term "cracker."
The term cracker was in use during Elizabethan times to describe braggarts. The original root of this is the Middle English word crack1 meaning "entertaining conversation" (One may be said to "’crack’ a joke"); this term and the alternate spelling "craic" are still in use in Ireland and Scotland. It is documented in Shakespeare’s King John (1595): "What cracker is this . . . that deafes our ears / With this abundance of superfluous breath?"
By the 1760s, this term was in use by the English in the British North American colonies to refer to Scots-Irish settlers in the south. A letter to the Earl of Dartmouth reads: "I should explain to your Lordship what is meant by Crackers; a name they have got from being great boasters; they are a lawless set of rascalls on the frontiers of Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia, who often change their places of abode." A similar usage was that of Charles Darwin in The Origin of Species, to refer to "Virginia squatters" (illegal settlers) (p. 35).
Historically the word suggested poor, white rural Americans with little formal education. Historians point out the term originally referred to the strong Scots-Irish of the backcountry (as opposed to the English of the seacoast). Thus a sociologist reported in 1926, "As the plantations expanded these freed men (formerly bond servants) were pushed further and further back upon the more and more sterile soil. They became ‘pinelanders,’ ‘corn-crackers,’ or ‘crackers.’" [Kephard Highlanders] Frederick Law Olmsted, a prominent landscape architect from Connecticut, visited the South as a journalist in the 1850s and noted that some crackers "owned a good many negroes, and were by no means so poor as their appearance indicated." [McWhiney xvi]
Other possible origins of the term "cracker" are linked to early Florida cattle herders that traditionally used whips to herd wild Spanish cattle. The crack of the herders’ whips could be heard for great distances and were used to round cattle in pens and to keep the cows on a given track. Also, "cracker" has historically been used to refer to those engaged in the low paying job of cracking pecans and other nuts in Georgia and throughout the southeast U.S.
According to the 1911 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, "cracker" is a term of contempt for the "poor" or "mean whites," particularly of Georgia and Florida. Britannica notes that the term dates back to the American Revolution, and is derived from the "cracked corn" which formed their staple food. (Please note that in British English "mean" is a term for poverty, not malice.)
 
 
 
 
Etymology Of The Word Cracker By kim Pearson
 read below
  Kim Pearson
© 2003-4. All Rights Reserved
 
 
CRACKER
INTRODUCTION
 
"Buddy, I’ll tell you this and I’ll tell the wo’l – all the crackers, all the poah white trash, all the nigger-hitting and nigger-breaking white folks – I loves life and I got to live and I’ll scab to hell to live."
 
Claude McKay’s use of the word cracker in this passage from his novel Home to Harlem fiercely illustrates the potent and derogatory punch this epithet has when employed to describe whites. However, the word’s etymology is slippery. It is also a designation used by and for Southerners many of whom self-identify proudly as crackers, especially whites from Georgia and sometimes from Florida. ( At the same time, much of the impact the word has on its recipients and their reactions depend on who’s doing the calling and where the people doing the calling are from. Indeed, one study identifies 21 kinds of crackers , all but one identified with the South. (McDavid, 96) While the word cracker has varied and shifting definitions, and while "cracker culture" is a major field of study all by itself, the word cracker actually holds mostly negative connotations stemming back to its first usage. In fact, in Florida, the word cracker when used as a racial epithet is a violation under the Florida Hate Crimes Act. (Hendrickson, 52).
 
This general definition provides the framework for understanding that a cracker can be a
person as well as a thing
 
CRACKER
n
1.
general. One who or that which cracks (in any of the senses of the vb.).
 
1625
nut-crackers, that only come for sight. (OED)
1842
 
This definition helps provide background on the bad "character" of the cracker.
DICKENS Amer. Notes (1850) 14/1 A teller of anecdotes and cracker of jokes. (OED) B. JONSON Staple of News Prol. for Crt., To scholars..above the vulgar sort Of
2.
1594
1652
beguile. (OED)
1746
1766
crackers; a name they have got from being great boasters; they are a lawless set of rascalls on the
frontiers of Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas and Georgia, who often change their places of abode. (OED)
 
This definition sheds more light on the negative connotations connected with cracker.
G. COCHRANE Let. 27 June (D.A.), I should explain to your Lordship what is meant by Brit. Mag. 48 Crackers against you are hang’d in Effigy. (OED) ASHMOLE Theatr. Chem. cx. 208 Beware..Of Boasters and Crackers, for they will thee SHAKES. John II. i. 147 What cracker is this same that deafes our eares With this abundance of superfluous breath? (OED) esp. A boaster, braggart; a liar. A Celtic word meaning a loudmouth. (Tonyan)
3
 
1871
 
 
This definition underscores just how very negative the connotation can be.
 
Daily News 24 July, Learning to tell lies, and call them ‘crackers’. (OED). [ l7C – early 20C] familiar or colloq. An enormous lie. ( Farmer, 201) A very tall story. (Partridge, 264)
4. [late l7C-l8C] the backside. (Green, p.283) the anus or buttocks (Spears, 88; 1811)
Also attrib. corn being a principal ingredient of the diet of backwoodmen (Presley) and poor whites linked to certain regions of Georgia . [ l7C – 19C] Crust, sea biscuit, or ammunition loaf. A thin hard biscuit. (Now chiefly in U.S.) . Cracker is also a Black name for whites, especially those thought to be racists. (Allen 50)
Works Cited and Consulted
Allen, Irving L. The Language of Ethnic Conflict: Social Organization and Lexical Culture. New York : Columbia University Press, 1983: 67.
Allen, Irving Lewis. Unkind Words: Ethnic Labeling from Redskin to WASP. New York: Bergin & Garvey, 1990: 49-50.
 
According to some, cracker is short for corn-cracker, which was a name for a Southern highlander in the nineteenth century (Allen, 50); but early quotes leave this doubtful. There are several other compounds besides corn-cracker associated with the word cracker.
Corn-cracker also refers to one who cracks corn to make grits or cornmeal,
and Florida. After the Civil War, many were too poor to buy corn meal and had no choice but to make their own. (Hendrickson, 76). Corn-cracker is first atttested to only in 1835. (Wordorigins).
 
The theme of crack corn for the purpose of making liquor is found in the folk song Blue Tailed Fly "Jimmy crack corn." (HALIFAX) in which a slave sings about how is master got drunk, fell, hit his
Head, and died. And the slave ‘don’t care’. (Burke)
 
1767
1783
slovenly people whom he identified as "Crackers." (OED)
1784
since the peace been greatly disturbed by the inroads of that hardy banditti well known by the name
of Crackers. (OED)
1790. A Spanish official reported the "influx [into Florida] of rootless people called Crackers." He described them as rude and nomadic, excellent hunters but indifferent farmers who planed only a few patches of corn as people who kept "themselves beyond the reach of all civilized law." (OED)
1836. Knickerbocker 7, 453. It is the killing of the cattle of the crackers – as the souther backwoodmen are called- that is the most fruitful of disputes. (OED)
1850
1887
1888
 
1926
pushed further and further back upon the more and more sterile soil. They became "pinelanders,
"corn-crackers," or "crackers." ( Cassidy, 826)
***********************
b. attrib.; the Cracker State, Georgia.
 
1872 SCHELE DE VERE Americanisms 659 Georgia..little deserves the name of Cracker State, by which it is occasionally designated. (OED)
1910 Washington Herald 27 Nov. 9 Through November the ‘Cracker State’ has occupied the center of motordom’s stage. (OED)
 
This definition involves the whip, its pieces, its sound and those who used the whip. One theory is that cracker was coined by black people in reference to the whip-cracking during enslavement; by extension any white person
An attachment to the end of a whip-lash such as a piece of buckskin by which a cracking
sound can be produced. Wentworth, 85). Also, the hide string, end of a bull whip of a buggy
whip. (Green, 264) The sound of whips cracking was heard when Florida cattlemen
would drive the oxen that pulled their carts and wagons and when Florida cowboys
herded cattle. (Tonyan)
1835
dry, buckskin cracker… So soft is the cracker, that a person who has not the sleight of using the
whip could scarcely hurt a child with it. (OED)
1842
1880
1887
1907
Return of Joe 164 Fresh and efficient crackers swung continually at the ends of the stockwhips. (OED)
1966
green cracker on it. (OED)
 
This definition refers to the food stuff, but its coloring provides the context an added meaning
. ‘J. HACKSTON’ Father clears Out 64 I’d plaited a whip specially for the occasion with a new W. H. KOEBEL Beacon (Boston) 11 June, The word Cracker..is supposed to have been suggested by their cracking whips over oxen or mules in taking their cotton to the market. (OED) A. A. HAYES New Colorado (1881) x. 140 Each wagoner must tie a brand-new ‘cracker’ to the lash of his whip. (OED) BUCKINGHAM, The Slave States of American (London, 1842, p.210) They are called by the twos people "Crackers," from the frequency with which they crack their large whips, as if they derived a peculiar pleasure from the sound. (OED) MONETT in J. H. Ingraham South-West II. 288 To the end of the lash is attached a soft,. (Smitherman,100) Kephard Highlanders. As the plantations expanded these freed men [formerly bond servants) were Harper’s Mag. July 240 They will live like the crackers of Georgia or the moonshiners of Tennessee. (OED) Harper’s Mag. May 843/Numbers of lawyers would gather together and relate their observations of Cracker life. 1908 (OED) Lyell 2nd Visit U.S. II. 73 Sometimes..my host would be of the humblest class of ‘crackers’, or some low, illiterate German or Irish emigrants. (OED) Lond. Chron. No. 4287 Maryland, the back settlements of which colony had McWhiney, XIV A German visiting the Carolina backcountry found longhorn cattle, swine, and Allen D. Chandler, Let. A parcel of people commonly called Crackers, a set of Vagabonds often as bad or worse than the Indians themselves (OED)
 
 
 
This definition and examples place the word in the most commonly understood U.S. historical and cultural context.
Cracker U.S. A poor white Southern person ( also "rustic", "countrified", "backwoods"
(Cassidy, 825) "uneducated"(Major,119), "low-down’(Rowan,99) and "white trash." ) The area of Southeast Georgia, and North Central Florida are most closely associated with word. (Hill 223)
 
 
7.
 
1739
you. (OED)
1781
commonly called crackers, are sometimes given; but they are heavy, owing to their being made
without yeast and not fermented. (OED)
 
1868
 
Interestingly, the word cracker in reference to white people by Blacks is possibly derived from association with the whiteness of soda crackers. (Talkin 252) as opposed to ginger cookies. (Juba 119)
 
This definition of cracker is the racially charged one and is best understood after carefully considering all previous definitions as to how it evolved.
B. J. LOSSING Hudson 28 The hunters live chiefly on bread or crackers. (OED) W. MOSS Essay Management & Nursing of Children 108 Hard biscuit, in New Eng. Hist. & Gen. Register (1868) XII. 296 Wee haue..sent a box of Crakers to
 
8
( Synonyms: U.S Black-use and also slang, early l900s to present: Ball-face, Beast,
Blue-eyed Devil, Bright Skin, Buckra, Charles, Charlie, Chick, Clay-eaters Dap, Devil, Dirteater, Dog, Face, Fade, Fay, Frosty, Georgia Cracker, Gray, Gray Boy, Grey Boy, Hay-eater, Hinkty, Honky, Hoople, Hunky, Jeff, Keltch, Ju Kluxer, Lily-white, Long Knife, Marshmallow, Mean white, Mister Charlie, Mondy, Mule, Ofay, Oofay, Paddy, Paddy Boy Plae, Pale-face, Peck, Peckerwood, Peek-a-Woods, Piney-Woods People, Pink, Pinky, Redneck, Ridgerunner, Roundeye, Shitkicker, Silk, Snake, The Man, White Meat, White Paddy Whitey. (Spears, 88)
1928
 
Stribling Store 473 AL, "We would do very well with white folks if it weren’t for these miserable
crackers", declared the tan girl passionately. (Cassidy 826)
1965 Little Autobiography of Malcom X 78. A big beefy, redfaced cracker soldier got up in front of me… and announced …"I’m going to fight you nigger." (Cassidy 826)
Smitherman Talkin 252 Cracker, negative term for whites, especially those who are extremely racist. ( Cassidy 826)
1980 Sun Times (Chicago, IL) 5 Mar Letters [From R.I. McDavid), I must deplore…Jay McMullen’s tactless, racist designation of President Carter as a "Georgia cracker." It is one of the most offensive terms that can be used about whites, and it has been traditionally used by blacks to designate the poorest, most degraded whites with whom they come in contact. (Cassidy 826)
McKay. Home to Harlem. 49. Buddy, I’ll tell you this and I’ll tell the wo’l – all the crackers, all the poah white trash, all the nigger-hitting and nigger-breaking white folks – I loves life and I got to live and I’ll scab through hell to live. (Cassidy 826)
 
Ayto, John. The Oxford Dictionary of Slang. Oxford; New York: Oxford University
Press, 1998: 69.
Ayto, John and John Simpson. The Oxford Dictionary of Modern Slang. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1992: 43.
Burke, Karanja. "Cracker."
Cassidy, Frederic G. Dictionary of American Regional English. Cambridge, Mass.:
Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Vol. I, 1985: 825-26.
Chapman, Robert L. New Dictionary of American Slang. New York: Harper & Row,
1986: 76, 85.
Claerbaut, David. Black Jargon in White America. Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1972.
Farmer, John S. A Dictionary of Slang: an Alphabetical History of Colloquial, Ware, Hertfordshire [England: Wordsworth Editions, 1987: 201.
Unorthodox, Underground and Vulgar English.
Green, Jonathon. The Cassell Dictionary of Slang. London: Cassell, 1998: 283.
Green, Paul. Paul Green’s Wordbook: an Alphabet of Reminiscence. Boone:
Appalachian Consortium Press; Chapel Hill, N.C.: Paul Green Foundation, 1990: 264.
Grose, Francis. 1811 Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue: a Dictionary of Buckish Slang, Adelaide, Australia: Bibliophile Books, 1982.
University Wit, and Pickpocket Eloquence.
Hendrickson, Robert. The Facts on File Dictionary of American Regionalisms. New
York: Facts on File, 2000: 52.
Hill, Mozell C and Bevode C McCall. "Cracker Culture: A Preliminary Definition."
Phylon; the Atlanta University Review of Race & Culture.
 
Atlanta, Ga. : Atlanta University, 1950: 223-231.
Johnson, Ken. "The Vocabulary of Race," in Thomas Kochman, ed., Rappin’ and Stylin’ Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1973: 143.
Out: Communication in Urban Black America.
Major, Clarence. Juba to Jive: a Dictionary of African-American Slang. New York, N.Y.,
U.S.A.: Penguin Books, 1994: 119.
McDavid and McDavid. "Cracker." The South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Charleston, S.C. [etc.]: South Carolina Historical Society, Vol.22, No.3 (1921): 99.
Magazine.
McDavid, Raven I and Sarah Ann Witham. "Poor Whites and Rustics." Names: JournalPotsdam, N.Y.: State University College, Vol.22, No.2 (1974): 93-103.
of the American Name Society.
McDavid, Raven I and Virginia McDavid. "Cracker and Hoosier." Names: Journal ofPotsdam, N.Y.: State University College, Vol.21, No.3 (1973): 161-167.
the American Name Society.
McWhiney, Grady. Cracker Culture: Celtic Ways in the Old South. Tuscaloosa, Ala.:
University of Alabama Press, 1988.
Otto, John Solomon. "Cracker: The History of a Southeastern Ethnic, Economic, and
Racial Epithet." Names: Journal of the American Name Society. Potsdam, N.Y.: State University College, Vol.35, No.1 (March 1987): 28-39.
Partridge, Eric. A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English: Colloquialisms and New York: Macmillan, 1984: 264.
Catch-phrases, Solecisms and Catachreses, Nicknames, and Vulgarisms.
Presley, Delma E. "The Crackers of Georgia." The Georgia Hstorical Quarterly.
Athens, Ga. : Georgia Historical Society: 102-116.
Rawson, Hugh. Wicked Words: a Treasury of Curses, Insults, Put-downs, and Other New York: Crown Publishers, 1989: 99.
Formerly Unprintable Terms from Anglo-Saxon Time to the Present.
Spears, Richard A. Slang and Euphemism: a Dictionary of Oaths, Curses, Insults, Sexual Middle Village, N.Y.: David Publishers, 1981: 88.
Slang and Metaphor, Racial Slurs, Drug Talk, Homosexual Lingo, and Related Matters.
Smitherman, Geneva. Black Talk: Words and Phrases from the Hood to the Amen Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000: 100.
Corner.
Smitherman, Geneva. Talkin and Testifyin: the Language of Black America. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 1977: 252-253.
Tonyan, Rick. "Cracking Up Cracker Myths." Reprint from Halifax Magazine
Wordorigins.org. "Cracker." <http://www.wordorigins.org/wordorc.htm>
 
copyright by Kevin Barry
July 18, 2001
Rhetoric of Race Dictionary Project home
Rhetoric of Race Home


  1. Chance,

    Actually “cracker” is a term created by whites. It at least goes back to 1500s Europe and in America it has primarily been a term used by whites to refer to poor and uneducated whites, who were pretty much the antithesis of slavemasters. Furthermore it was self-used in a non-pejorative sense to describe certain whites who lived in the GA. FL. area.

    See Wikipedia.

    Even though it makes sense as a slave construct, from everything that I’ve ever read on the word, it is most likely that black people picked up this term from whites.

    Check out this etymology too.

  2. Yo chance I didnt know that. I know I heard them calling each other that usually when thier refer to white rednecks. Also I had never read that about the cracking of the whip bieng the origin of the name cracker. I have read many slave narratives and have never read this. Guess you learn something new everyday. Also do you have any recomendation on simple things I can do to to improve the black history audio site. I look forward to your suggestions

  3. I will add those references too Rashid, because those are some of the names about why whites are called crackers the slave whp was just one. It is good for people to know the origins of certain things because this gives us an idea of how people thought and felt socially during those time periods. Thanks for helping out with references Rashid, and come by again so we can break intellectual bread.

    Take care, Rashid

    By Chance

  4. Mark,

    Yes we learn something everyday that makes life so intersting and yes, I do have a recommendation and that is put up pictures in your post and in your side bar were your archives and post are why? because pictures capture peoples attention. I also recommend you put up some audio or post on the origins of certain character types that blacks are often referred too, example picaninny the origin of picaninny came from the Jim crow era. But I would start with the pictures to give your website some life first.

    Take care, Mark

    By Chance

  5. Leonardo medina

    Do not confuse religion with history. There is no historical evidence for the jewish exodus from Egypt. The pyramids at Giza are over 5,000 years old!-long before any dessert tribe of hebrews appear. Neither were the pyramids built by slave labor. Unlike the Greeks and Romans and American empires, Egypt was never a slave economy. In fact, no African state was ever based on slavery.

  6. Leonardo medina

    I agree that the pyramids were not built by Hebrew slaves or other slaves. it is beleived by some that the pyramids came from Atlantis the sunken continent, these pyramids wer brought to Africa by atlanteans fleeing the flood of noah before atlantis sunk.

    Thank you for coming by

    Leonardo medina

  7. you mention people like richard lynn and john p rushton. but these reports are the effect of what has been done to “black people” it not brillant works per say. these type of statistics are exspected. its like saying blacks are inferrior because they are black. this is not true “blacks” have been under a enourmous strain during slavery and during ancient egypt. also the violators were scientific people like the people you made reference to. our most ancient ancestors were greatly dissatisfied which lead to the current situation we see today. their was a time when “black forefarthers before the egytian time and during that time were somewhat similar and far beyond the “whites you see today.” why must you insinuate that to be black is inferrior? why chance? you must know of william lynch? can you put it on your website and explain why this stuff is going on? if you think william lynch is fake check out the wickapedia william lynch is their. breeding and altering interference is a factor and manipulation and control. think if the shoe was on the other foot how easy you could tinker with a race of people. in that case tinkering with the world especially when your government is heir to “the most ancient black rulers of the planet”. can you please give a link or a space for william lynch on your website so that blacks who come to your site are not left feeling inferrior with no explanation other than they’re black
    thanks.

  8. Hello Ming

    I don’t feel that blacks are inferior and whites are superior, also the essay was about the origin of the word cracker not about blacks being inferior and whites superior. The ancient Egyptians were a great black and mulatto race they perfected geometry and were very intelligent. Also, white Greeks went to ancient Egypt and took over and studied all of the teachings (education, mathematics, culture, etc) of the Egyptians and took it back to Greece. And western civilization is upon Greek and Roman culture but the Greeks got their culture from the Egyptians. We all learn from each other.

    Thanks for your commentary

    By Chance

  9. Hi there…Man i love reading your blog, interesting posts ! it was a great Sunday

  10. I recently read in Merriam Webster or Britannica that picaninny originated from the spanish pequeno and while considered a slur here and was used during slavery & Jim Crow, it originated in the Carribean prior to that. It is used there as an endearment (?). In another source I saw that aboriginals in Australia are often referred to that way and many live in a section called by that name. I realize that these are names imposed by European anglos, but do these theories hold truth?

  11. Chance

    @ Drinda,
    In Belize and Jamaica the term pickney/pickni: child, children is used for child. In the United states it is used as an insult to black children who wear dirty clothes, unkept hair, and are neglect by their parents. So yes in the Caribbean especially in English speaking countries it is true that the term is used by some people.

  12. I have another question. We have an African American who teaches middle school American History. After showing flims of the KKK, Thomas Jefferson & Sally Hemmings, and Trail of Tears, he then has 8 graders of European decent stand and act as slave owners of the black children. They scream at them, call names, and for them to do work in the classs room. The dominant one also must follow orders. The white kids are saying nothing as they are afraid, the black kids are telling.As counselor they come to me and I am not sure what to do. ahe ha s been wiritten up several timrs to no deal and discuss things, but so far not has happened. It just doesn’ feel right. Got any ideas? Thanks

  13. Chance

    This Paragraph was edited by admin (Chance) to correct certain words.

    Drinda Wrote:
    Sunday, February 17, 2008 at 12:20 am – I have another question. We have an African American who teaches middle school American History. After showing films of the KKK, Thomas Jefferson & Sally Hemmings, and Trail of Tears, he then has 8 graders of European decent stand and act as slave owners of the black children. They scream at them, call names, and for them to do work in the class room. The dominant one also must follow orders. The white kids are saying nothing as they are afraid, the black kids are telling. As counselor they come to me and I am not sure what to do. He has been written up several times to no deal and discuss things, but so far nothing has happened. It just doesn’t’ feel right. Got any ideas? Thanks

    My response: The teacher probably means well, he wants the students both black and white to understand the psychological effects that slavery had on black slaves during the days of slavery. He wants the kids to understand the fear, the horror, emotional pain, and mental and psychic anguish that the black slaves went through. But his method is inappropriate for the class room. The method of character acting as white slave masters or black slaves should not be allowed in the class room or kindergarten, grade school, middle school jr high school, or High school.

    This actually in my opinion left mental scars on the black kids and white kids. It made the black kids feel lower and inferior to the white kids, and it made the white kids feel shame for treating their black class mates that way. It also may have made some white kids feel superior while feeling some shame at the same time. The black kids are telling because they feel more victimizes because they were forced to play the servant role.

    This teacher needs to be stopped. If you talked to the principle, and the school principle has done nothing then you will have to go to the school district administrators who are more powerful than the principle and inform them of what has happened.

    The fact that he has been written up many times, and nothing has happened means possibly — that the things he has been written up for are minor. This could be the major incident that is needed to bring disciplinary action against him. If the principle does nothing them contact the school district administrator’s office (district administrator’s office the superintendent) by emailing the department that handles those complaints. You may want to email the superintendent also and the human resources. The teacher needs to be informed that his actions though well intended were not appropriate for students so young.

    He may not need to be terminated he may need to be warned. But if the previous times he was written up should also be taken into account. They may have told him one more write up and he will be disciplined. Or maybe the previous write ups were not severe infractions combined with this incident warrant disciplinary action it all depends. As a counselor you have an obligation to protect the students. If you do inform the proper chain of command, and the teacher is brought before the principle or administrators, and he finds out it was you who informed them. You should tell the teacher that you were doing what was best for the children, and you have a responsibility to them.

    You may also choose to speak to the teacher in private, and tell him how some of the black kids felt. This could influence him never to do this again. The only problem is some or one of black students may tell their parents, and they may say to their parents that they told the counselor, and then the parents are going to go the principle and may even contact the superintendent’s office. Then the principle and superintendent will call you (counselor) in for a meeting and ask how come you did nothing meaning you did not inform the first principle and if the principle did nothing how come you did not inform the superintendent’s office?

    You have to cover yourself counselor.

    The teacher may not be a bad person or teacher. He needs to be informed that his actions were not appropriate. I don’t know how old the teacher is, but I have noticed that often young teachers get caught up in more controversy than older teachers. This is because they are still young and still developing experience.

    I hope things turn out well for you counselor, the teacher, and the students.

  14. cracker or cracka, or craka (from “crack,” a common Teutonic word, cf. Ger. krachen, A kkk Cracker Alexander Ives Bortolot
    public5:11 PM1 viewadd epropsadd commentsemailedit

    Cracker U.S. A poor white Southern person ( also “rustic”, “countrified”, “backwoods”

    (Cassidy, 825) “uneducated”(Major,119), “low-down’(Rowan,99)and “white trash.” ) The area of Southeast Georgia, and North CentralFlorida are most closely associated with word. (Hill 223)

    Also attrib.

    According to some, cracker is short for corn-cracker, which was a name fora Southern highlander in the nineteenth century (Allen, 50); There are several other compounds besidescorn-cracker associated with the word cracker.

    Corn-cracker also refers to one who cracks corn to make grits or cornmeal,corn being a principal ingredient of the diet of backwoodmen(Presley) and poor whites linked to certain regions of Georgia

    and Florida. After the Civil War, many were too poor to buy corn meal and hadno choice but to make their own. (Hendrickson, 76). Corn-cracker is firstatttested to only in 1835. (Wordorigins).

    Simple minded, rural and inbred. Poor excuses for homosapiens. Diet Consists of roasted racoon and roadkill. usually has around 12 children, all named cleetus, britney or clancey. Lives in trailers or shacks. often mistaken for game. the combined IQ of a family of hillbilly’s often challenges the IQ of the raodkill they eat, which is approximatly how many teeth they have (less then 5) (2) to a roll of coloured and ornamented paper containing sweets, small articles of cheap jewelry, paper caps and other trifles, together with a strip of card with a fulminant which explodes with a “crack” on being pulled; (3) to a thin crisp biscuit; in America the general name for a biscuit. In the southern states of America, “cracker” is a term of contempt for the “poor” or “mean caucasions,” particularly of Georgia and Florida; the term is an old one and dates back to the Revolution, and is supposed to be derived from the “cracked corn” which formed the staple food of the class to whom the term refers. Many African Americans owned a good many crackas, and were by no means so poor as their appearance indicated, in truth whites are the real slaves, the word slave comes from the Slavs however these were western europeans. unlike minorities in american who weren’t slaves but Enslaved theres a difference.

    Historically the word suggested poor, caucasian rural Americans with little formal education. Historians point out the term originally referred to the strong Scots-Irish of the back country (as opposed to the English of the seacoast). Thus a sociologist reported in 1913: “As the plantations expanded these freed men (formerly bond servants) were pushed further and further back upon the more and more sterile soil. They became ‘pinelanders’, ‘corn-crackers’, or ‘crackers’.”[5]

    As early as the 1760s, this term was in use by the English in the British North American colonies to refer to Scots-Irish settlers in the south. A letter to theEarl of Dartmouth reads:

    I should explain to your Lordship what is meant by Crackers; a name they have got from being great boasters; they are a lawless set of rascalls on the frontiers of Virginia, Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia, who often change their places of abode.

    A similar usage was that of Charles Darwin in his introduction to The Origin of Species, to refer to “Virginia squatters” (illegal settlers), and it simply refers to the poorest of the white that used to work the field in the old days. As a joke they’d call each other that, because after the day was over they were burnt like a cracker (light brown outside but still white in the inside).

    Also, “cracker” has historically been used to refer to those engaged in the low paying job of cracking pecans and other nuts in Georgia and throughout the southeast U.S. The term “cracker” was in use during Elizabethan times to describe braggarts. The original root of this is the Middle English word crack1 meaning “entertaining conversation” (One may be said to “crack” a joke); this term and the alternate spelling “craic” are still in use in Ireland and Scotland. It is documented in Shakespeare’s King John (1595): “What cracker is this … that deafes our ears / With this abundance of superfluous breath?” Usage of the term “cracker” generally differs from “hick” and “hillbilly” because crackers reject or resist assimilation into the dominant culture, while hicks and hillbillies theoretically are isolated from the dominant culture. In this way, cracker culture is similar to redneck culture.

  15. I believe you are right completely…

  1. 1 Forgotten history? Perhaps. | Writing in Washington

    […] https://chancellorfiles.wordpress.com/2007/01/16/cracker-the-white-man-with-the-whip/ […]




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