Anatole Broyard The Creole

Anatole Broyard The Creole

(He passed for white because he was white)

By Chance Kelsey, chancellorfiles.com

Chance: Anatole Paul Broyard was born on July 16, 1920, in New Orleans to Paul Broyard and Edna Miller. Documents in the Louisiana state archives show that all of Anatole Broyard’s ancestors on both Father and mother’s side of the family to have been negroes (blacks). Paul Broyard had white skin and could pass for white but his wife Edna was light skin but could not pass for white. 

Anatole Broyard’s family were creoles and many creoles could pass for white. Creoles come in a variety of skin complections — some are white skinned, yellowish, Caramel brown, and dark skin black. The most popular skin tones that creoles are known for are white and light skin (yellowish skin). Anatole was apart of the whitie skin Creole class he got his skin tone from his father Paul Broyard. Now there are two types of creoles, the white creole and the creole of color. The white creoles are white people who are decendants of the french, and some white creoles are descendants of the Spainards. Francec olonized the state of Louisiana, and it was in the state of Louisiana that the majority of white creoles were born — epecially in the city of New orleans. Spainards from Spain also came to New Orleans, Louisiana and settled there. Some white Creoles are octroons and quadroons because they have some black ancestry. But if they could pass for white then they were considered white if they preferred to be white. The white creoles who descended from white French settlers are the marjority. Therefore, when the name white creole is spoken of people in general mainly are refferring to the descendants of white french settlers. Creoles of color are those who are part black and white. Some creoles of color are mixed with black, white, native American Indian, or some other ethnic group. Anatole lived the early years of his life on St. Ann Street in a nice modest looking house, in a black and Creole neighborhood in the French Quarter.

Paul Broyard had three children and Anatole was second and Lorraine, was the oldest and she could pass for white just like Anatole. Lorraine was two years older than Anatole. Shirley, was the third child and the youngest she was two years younger than Anatole, and she could not pass for white. Shirley did not have the white skin that Anatole and Lorraine had. Now Anatole Broyard worked for the New York Times as a literary critic, and he read and reviewed many books for the NY times.

He also wrote some books, his two most famous books are Kafka was the rage and Intoxicated By My Illness. While working at the Ny Times some co workers suspected that he was passing for white other co workers never questioned his ethnicity because they simply thought he was white. Through out his whole life there were certain people who felt that he was not white but a black man passing as white. Anatole seldom discussed him ethnic back ground with anyone. Anatole gave a reason about why he chose to pass for white, he said that he wanted to be a writer — and if he said he was black he would be considered a negro writer only.

 He wanted to be viewed as a writer not just another black writer. Many blacks resent light skin (white skin looking) creoles like Anatole Broyard for passing for white, but the reality is, that Anatole and other light skin (white skin looking) creoles are really not black. They pass for white because genetically they predominantly are white. Yes it is true, that these lightskin people have some black ancestry, but they are not genetically predominantly black on the outside.

They are white people, you can’t pass for white you are either white or not. When the American government passed the one drop blood rule — this meant that anyone with one drop of black blood was to be considered black. And it is, based upon this that blacks considered Anatole Broyard and those who could pass for white black. Anatole had more white blood and genetics in him than black blood and genetics. He was a white man with some black ancestry nothing more. Even lightskin blacks who can’t pass for white are really not black they are descendants of mulattoes, creoles, and bi racials.

By Chance (Chancellor)

Written by Chance during the 21st century


  1. Hello, I stumbled across your website, Chancellorfiles.com and came across this article of yours written about the life of Creole author Anatole Broyard.

    I find it interesting that you would label this man with Black ancestry and family “a white man with black ancestry nothing more”.

    According to this reason, hundreds of thousands of members of the Black community, who have always identified as Black and choose to identify as Black are suddenly “re-classified” as “whites with black ancestry”. This is a curious belief to me. They are people of mixed family background, many who culturally identify with the African-American community. A person cannot be White without two White parents and a white family. America is not Brazil where according to what I’ve learned, anyone and their uncle can claim to be “white” even if they are significantly Black and have far more Black/mixed blooded relatives than White family members. Of course, you are entitled to believe in whatever you please, but America’s Black people, both dark and light, do not hold to this belief. Light skinned people of color such as Broyard, generally DO NOT want to be referred to as “whites with black ancestry”. In fact, most such as myself would have nothing with such a label. I “look white” but I certainly would NEVER want to be referred to as “white”. I have nothing to do with such a description. My mother is a light-skinned Black, my grandparents are Black, the side of the family that I know the best are Black. I’m comfortable with Black culture, I identify strongly as a person of color. My mind and heart have very little to do with the White community, and frankly, you will find the vast majority of us feeling the exact same way. Very few if any light-skinned Blacks would have anything to do with saying that they are White when they clearly are not. And personally, I’m a little bit puzzled why any fair-skinned individual would feel the NEED to call themself White when the days of Broyard’s time where people of color were relegated by White society to low-level work, are long gone. It seems to me, that Broyard’s choice to hide his family background probably originated more for a desire for better economic opportunities, not out of wanting to not be Creole or Black anymore. If the racism of his era wasn’t so intense and people of color were allowed to succeed fully and freely, he probably would not have even thought of passing. Therefore, this practice of people of color labeling themself “white” when they come from clearly non-white families, seems to be completely unecessary in the 21st century. If we can get a good education, a good career, and a comfortable lie being exactly what we are, what in the world is the reason for saying we are “whites with black ancestry”? We can celebrate our heritage freely and still have a good life, something that was denied to Black people 60, 70 years ago.

  2. @ Victoria Grace

    Hello,

    I have my reasons for labeling the late Mr. Anatole Broyard white instead of black. It is based up on many reasons one is his genetic phenotype. Also, the black American race of America has too many people who are mulattos, Quadroons, Octoroons, and bi racials who are simply labeled black. This is an injustice these people need to be sent to a third ethnic category separate from black and white. It use to be like this long ago in America. This will help get ride of the light skin dark skin thing. You Victoria are following the phony fake one drop blood rule, and this is why you say what you said above.

    If one drop of black blood makes you black, then why can’t one drop of white blood make you white? And why cant one drop of Native American blood make you a Native American.
    If we Americans are so mixed then we need to use a Brazilian style ethnic system. Some light skin blacks want to remain black because they feel superior and special among blacks because of their light skin. There are some light skin mixed blacks and other mixed blooded blacks who want to be labeled mixed and not be labeled black (or) because black does not describe them truly. All groups have their culture, but you can always change your culture whether it be black American or some other culture. Look at all of the people who are from other ethnic groups but imitate black culture.

    Let people be mixed and classify themselves as mixed instead of black or white since they look like both. Saying that they are black only, and not allowing them to claim white publicly and therefore mixed is an insult to their white heritage and white ancestors.

    Thank you for coming by Victoria, and please feel free to come again.

  3. Melissa

    Mulattos, Quadroons, Octoroons, and bi racial? I can’t fathom in 2007, how a progressive thinker such as yourself, would still use such terms as mulattos, Quadroons, Octoroons. A “Mulatto” is a person who is bi racial regardless of what racial mix one is. It’s funny how white Americans now choose to claim the “mulatto, Quadroon, Octoroon, and bi racial child since they are no longer burdens on slave masters, who raped their African Mother for their own selfish and sadistic needs. Sir, I am a black woman whose maternal grandparents also happen to be black. My grandmother had six children who are all brown skin except for the last one. My aunt is a light skin black woman and she sir is not white, nor does she secretly want to be white. Mr. Anatole Broyard was a product of rape and his maternal linage felt the need to separate themselves from their blackness by being the sexual toy of white French men. If he was a black Creole, then he was probably a product of a plasage. It seems, as if you in fact may have a problem with what it means to be black. Passing for white, made it easier to get ahead in the first place. However, rape and force breeding shouldn’t be rewarded for this so called mixed race thing. One should have the right to claim whatever race they choose, but don’t demean one to make another superior. That’s why many have chosen to pass and forget about their AFRICAN linage.

  4. chance

    @ Melissa,

    It is a good thing that whites claim those who are mulattoes, quadroons, octoroons, because these people are mixed heavily with white. Anatole Broyard was the result of whites, octoroons, quadroons, and light skin inter marring with each other. The point is that Anatole Broyard chose to be whom he became and that was his right as an American. Regardless of what blacks and members of other ethnic groups think. Also, people are not obligated to be apart of blackness or whiteness or anything else — they have a right to chose and we should respect that. Many blacks don’t like being black anyway, and mistreat fellow blacks so why should people who are predominantly white remain black when they could just go and be white, and be spared mistreatment at the hands of society and at the hands of blacks. Anatole had the right to choose and I respect that.

    Thank you for coming by!

  5. All people who claim to be against racism should defend the white identity of Anatole Broyard. Those who condemn him as a “black” who merely “passed for white” are saying that white racial purity is real and a necessity for the “white race” to survive. That is EXACTLY what white supremacists traditionally argue. If you want to take the stigma out of African ancestry, then promote and accept that ancestry in white people. Note that no one dares to say that everyone with American Indian blood is “Indian.” The result is that no one dares to claim that American Indians are genetically “inferior.” It wouldn’t fly politically.

    http://www.webcom.com/intvoice/editor13.html

  6. chance

    @ A.D. Powell,

    You are so correct, and that is true we must promote the reality that currently about 74 million white Americans have black ancestry that is not visible. If we continue to publicize the reality that, whites have black blood and ancestry as time goes on they will not view the black race as inferior because it would stain whites to and cause them to be labeled inferior. We mixed race people and whites must publicly acknowledge that whites have black ancestry. This will remove the curse of the one drop blood rule and help remove the idea of black inferior.

    Thank you for coming by A.D. and please come again. I like your writings I have read a lot of your essays over at interracialvoice.

  7. nick

    I’ve reviewed many of your articles by accident tonight and find your opinions biased and non scientific. Your terminology is outdated and your sources are limited. Although you label yourself “biracial”, its obvious that you choose to identify with your non-African ancestors by berating the African side of your lineage.You are the definition of the “tragic mulatto”. Look in the mirror. You exude negative energy. Here’s hoping Tom Metzger doesn’t find your website and give you an award for advancing the white supremacy movement.

  8. chance

    Nick said: I’ve reviewed many of your articles by accident tonight and find your opinions biased and non scientific. Your terminology is outdated and your sources are limited. Although you label yourself “biracial”, its obvious that you choose to identify with your non-African ancestors by berating the African side of your lineage. You are the definition of the “tragic mulatto”. Look in the mirror. You exude negative energy. Here’s hoping Tom Metzger doesn’t find your website and give you an award for advancing the white supremacy movement.

    Nick said: Here’s hoping Tom Metzger doesn’t find your website and give you an award for advancing the white supremacy movement.

    My response: My writings are picked up buy all kinds of people. I write about many topics, and there is something for many types of people white supremacists, Black Nationalist, and other groups. I would never be a white supremacist or Black Nationalist if I had to choose why not be both at the same time you mixed.

    My response: Nick on what articles did you see that you feel are biased, and which articles did you read that you feel are non scientific? Show me and let me explain myself. What terminology did you see that was outdated? Also, what is wrong with a person accepting that they are mixed race genetically? Many blacks dislike being black and these same blacks no matter were they go anywhere in the world will be see as black. Many blacks are not mixed with a lot of other ethnic makeup and this is why they look predominantly black. These same blacks dislike being black and inflict pain and suffering on blacks, and they seem to get an enjoyment out of inflicting pain and suffering on blacks. Many blacks prefer to live in a white neighborhood than to live with blacks and that’s says a lot.

    Why live among whites if they are all bad evil white people. Tragic mulatto is the result of being forced to live a racial identity that you are not. A mulatto, biracials, and MGM’s (multigenerational mixed) are not blacks or whites or any other ethnicity they are the mixed race people and should not be labeled black or white. Long ago in America there use to be three ethnic categories black, white, and mulatto when some people were born in the 19 teens on their birth certificate they were called mulattos and not black or white. Even when both parents were light skin and had a child back then the baby’s birth certificate would say mulatto. Now not all birth certificates did but many. Some of the so called blacks who are in their 80’ and 90s on their birth certificate it said mulatto, not black. Tragic mulatto just means you have been forced to live an identity that is really not you but only part of you meaning you have been forced to live your black ancestry part — but denied to live out your white ancestry publicly. This is a tragedy, also many mixed folks have black and Asian or Hispanic or Samoan in them we should be allowed to live publicly all of our ancestries.

    Black was considered the inferior of the two (whites and blacks) and therefore, bi racials, mulattos, and mixed folks were forced to be labeled and live as black. The government made it official before 1930 that one drop of black blood makes you black. This is called the ODR (one drop rule), but in reality it is false, one drop of black blood does not makes you black, no more than one drop of white blood makes you white, and no more than one drop of Chinese blood makes you Chinese. Like I say many blacks dislike being black, feel oppressed, and want others who have some black ancestry but are mixed raced to feel oppressed like them.

    They don’t want anyone to escape the oppression. Let people live their lives and go live your life. Blacks need to live their lives and let others live theirs. The American government in 1967 eliminated the one drop blood rule, so bi racial and mixed folks who have some black ancestry are no longer required by law to follow it. They follow it because they want to. Some don’t follow it at all anymore and some follow it casually meaning depending on the situation. Now as for the internet this website/blog is for my own personally opinions, ideas, and research and the same applies to all website and blogs. Most blogs are about the writers opinions about anything whether correct or incorrect the same applies here at this website. And, if you have a blog or website the same applies there.

    Thank you, for visiting NICK

  9. I find it quite stunning that People here in American continue to Play the “Race Card”…In The real World there is no such thing as Race…
    This Word has come into existance because Man Is not and probably never will be ready to respect people for what they truly are….The word African American is a product of Americas ‘Racist society…Why are they called Minorities at all ? Are they different than others…
    Our DNA Does not seperate the Races.. Man Does…
    If one is Bi-racial that does not make him one specific Race…As a light skin Creole I choose as I please to identify with either my European or My African Heritage.No one has the Right to Label someone else, besides, whats so great about being White or Black..
    I’m Proud of being me.. It is my right to be what I choose.
    As Creoles We Have Fought all our Lives to fit in a Society where White is always right and Black is not good enough…Enought is Enought..My Hat Goes Off to Mr. Broyard…He Has the right to choose his own Destiny just like everybody else…

  10. chance

    @ Augustine/ Comeaux

    You have spoken the truth our DNA is mixed and we have a right to identify as we please creoles and people have a right to identify as a separate group. I really enjoy being me and I hope someday people will be able to choose their identity without other attacking them.

  11. Chance:

    thanx again for your carefully [& delicately] constructed observations;
    AND for ACCURATELY potraying Creoles:
    http:www.nsula.edu/creole

    Please feel free to:
    a] join us

    or

    b] reference our site for future thoughts.

    Merci!

    KCF

  12. Chance

    Thanks for the articles AP, they are very informative!

  13. Denise

    I notice that Chance always have a tendency to exclude light skinned blacks from every racist equation. I think that deep down inside he has colorism issues himself. When I read the article about skin color, I was appalled when he basically tried to make persons believe that darker skinned blacks and so called brown skinned caramels are jealous of his skin complexion.

    Each African American skin tones comes in a variety of shades, Light Skinned Category: Fair(“High Yellow”and mocha”) Medium fair(“Honey” and medium caramel).

    Brown skinned:Light Brown(Dark Caramel) Medium brown(Pecan). Dark Brown(light chocolate)

    Dark Skinned: medium dark(chocolate), Dark(dark chocolate) Very Dark(Blue black to purple undertones).

    It is like he is trying to say that so call caramel blacks are trying to claim his beloved complexion. Your definition of a caramel complexion is off because, a caramel complexion is mostly identified with mullato Latinos.
    I have a medium caramel complexion. A caramel complexion is an exotic skin tone, it is very beautiful. Many of fair skinned blacks wear bronzers to achieve the caramel bronze look. Many light skinned Latinos tan to get the caramel look.Caramel colored African Americans can pass for East Indians, and mullato Latinos. I remember one time someone told me that they thought that I was of East Indian Descent from Guyana. Black is beautiful in all shades, but do not make it like fair skinned blacks are the cream of the crop, because there are some fair skinned blacks who wished that there skin tone were a beautiful caramel, just ask Beyonce why she wears bronzers.

  14. I believe what Chance is trying to communicate is that one can’t be “Black” if their skin is not black.
    Using “Black” to describe people from dark brown to white complexions is unjust & disrespectful to REAL Blacks…
    and yes, “Black IS Beautiful”.

  15. Sanjeev

    Hello. I don’t quite understand the need for such an absolute racial categorization of being either “black” OR “white”. I think it is probably important to be honest about one’s history though.

    However, there are a few parts of the article that I take issue with. First, France colonized, they did not colinize. Secondly, Orleans should certainly be capitalized towards the end of your second paragraph.

  16. Chance

    @ Sanjeev,

    I agree it is more important to focus on ones history.

  17. Light, Bright & Beautiful

    Denise, I have very light skin and I have NEVER wished to have dark black skin. (Dark black skin is just unattractive to me. Some people think dark skin is beautiful; I do not.) Make no mistake, I LOVE my beautiful light skin.

    Also, Denise, you do seem a bit obsessed with this light-skinned, biracial-themed blog; your obsession with the “Mulatto Movement” is just too bizarre. Hmmm… Why is that?

  18. Denise

    SEE THIS IS WHAT I MEAN. HOW DO YOU EXPECT TO GET ANY POINTS ACROSS OR ANY MOVEMENT FOR THAT MATTER, WITH SUCH A DIABOLICAL APPROACH. I AM NOT DARK SKINNED SO WHAT IS YOUR POINT MY MOTHER IS NATIVE AMERICAN, DUTCH AND BLACK, I HAVE SOME WHITE RELATIVES ON BOTH MY MOTHER’S SIDE AND MY FATHER’S SIDE AND SOME SPANISH ON MY FATHER’S SIDE, SO WHAT IS YOUR POINT AGAIN ANYWAY.

    MY POINT IS NOT ALL “MIXED RACE” PEOPLE HAVE “HIGH YELLOW” SKIN TONES. I AM A SHADE LIGHTER THAN MEL.B FROM THE SPICE GIRLS, AND I LOVE MEL.B, BECAUSE SHE REPRESENTS MIXED RACE LINEAGE PEOPLE LIKE MYSELF YOU ARE NOT “HIGH” AND “BRIGHT”

    COLORISM EXISTS IN THE MULTI-RACIAL COMMUNITY AS WELL, I CAN TELL BY THE STATEMENTS THAT ARE MADE. I PREFER TO IDENTIFY AS AN AFRICAN AMERICAN,BECAUSE I AM A REALIST. BLACK AMERICANS AND I RELATE TO THE SAME STRUGGLE. NO RACE IS BETTER THAN ANY OTHER RACE AND THAT IS THE POINT THAT I AM ALSO TRYING TO GET ACROSS. THE EUROPEAN BLOOD IN MY VEINS DO NOT MAKE ME ANY INFERIOR OR SUPERIOR TO ANYONE. PEOPLE LIKE YOU MAKE ME ASHAMED TO EVEN SAY THAT I AM OF A MIXED RACE HERITAGE. THE MULATTO MOVEMENT, IS REALLY THE AFRO-WHITE SUPREMACIST MOVEMENT.

    YOU ALL THINK THAT WHITE BLOOD IS A BADGE OF HONOR. HONOR OUR CREATOR. I AM OUT.

  19. Denise

    MY #23 COMMENT, WAS DIRECTED TOWARD Light, Bright & Beautiful COMMENT.

  20. Chris

    I have two daughters one light and one dark, the light one is often mistaken for Hispanic, and is dating a Hispanic. She has a child by an Hispanic and he looks Hispanic. Her DNA would reflect from her father and myself (black, white (Jewish-Friedman), Puerto Rican, Native American). So what would you consider her race to be. My other daughter appears to be of a mixed race to (light brown hair and carmel color skin). I tell them they are Black American. My husband is light skinned with green eyes often mistaken for white or (mixed race when in the company of blacks), born and raised in Lousiana.

  21. Chance

    Chris said:I have two daughters one light and one dark, the light one is often mistaken for Hispanic, and is dating a Hispanic. She has a child by an Hispanic and he looks Hispanic. Her DNA would reflect from her father and myself (black, white (Jewish-Friedman), Puerto Rican, Native American). So what would you consider her race to be. My other daughter appears to be of a mixed race to (light brown hair and carmel color skin). I tell them they are Black American. My husband is light skinned with green eyes often mistaken for white or (mixed race when in the company of blacks), born and raised in Lousiana.

    Response: Chris your kids can call themselves what ever they like racially. They should have the right to choose.

  22. Elle

    I plan to have mulatto children. I will not marry a black man for any reason, because I don’t want black children, only mulattoes, especially girls. It’s just a plain fact that lighter women are considered more attractive and have a more mainstream appeal. It’s a sociological fact that light-skinned blacks are more likely to be hired for jobs and that other races feel more comfortable around them. It’s also an indisputable fact that most brown and dark skinned women have at some point wished to be lighter while virtually no light women have wished to be darker. The only people who object are dark black women. They are in denial. Many white women try to have mixed children because they find them cute, so what’s the big deal? All over the world women even bleach their skin, this is global. I don’t blame mulatto girls for wanting to describe themselves as mixed instead of black since all races of men including black guys make black women out to be worthless. But they have to face the music: they’re seen as blacks.

    If I have to be artificially inseminated and be a single mom in order to raise a mulatto child because no white man will marry me, then so be it. The fact of not being able to find a decent white husband will just reinforce in my mind that black women aren’t considered marriage material and that therefore my decision to have mulatto children was a good one. The child will thank me when she doesn’t have to sit in a chair for 7 hours enduring torturous combing and tight pulling into braids just to get her coarse hair texture under control.

  23. Foxy40

    Elle – what is your ethnicity? And check this, I hope you get your wish of having mulatto girls but I guarantee you, one or the other will want a black man and you will still be haunted by the beauty of blackness.

  24. Mulatto Girl

    To: “Elle”

    You are like a breath of fresh air. I know you are serious in your writing, but I could not help but laugh out loud at your honesty! I admire you so much!

    Your mulatto daughters will be light-skinned and beautiful!

    ;D

  25. Jenny

    I like Elle! She makes me feel proud to be “high yellow”.

  26. Jenny

    Hey “Foxy40”, I don’t find that much beauty in blackness. I guess that’s just my preference…

  27. Elle

    To: “Elle”

    You are like a breath of fresh air. I know you are serious in your writing, but I could not help but laugh out loud at your honesty! I admire you so much!

    Your mulatto daughters will be light-skinned and beautiful!

    I like Elle! She makes me feel proud to be “high yellow”.

    Thanks 🙂

  28. Pam

    These discussions are always so difficult and complex. There are no easy answers. The issue for us, black people is the continued experience of invalidation our particular experience. BLACK PEOPLE ARE NOT DARKED SKINNED WHITE PEOPLE. Genetics or no, the center of this discussion is consciousness, not genetics. Are you qualified to assess the percentage of European or African ancestry without a test? And when Brazil is brought up in these discussions it is really unfortunate. Brazil is country with a larger number of black people who retain more original of West and Central African cultures than the US which influences all Brazilians. Despite this whiteness is priveledged, often uncritically there. Most fenetypically African people are poor and don’t have the opportunity for social advancement. Clinging to any white ancestry there is escapist as it has been. So please let’s leave Brazil out of this. Though the Latin model of racial identity is seeping in here, previously only in Louisiana did anything resembling it exist. Another point, despite appearances, 95% of African American are likely of mixed race. So where’s the cut off for blackness at 65 or 70%? What binds people is culture not genetics. Anatole Broyard’s consciousnees and experience was that of the Jim Crow era, and grew up in the black community full stop. Currently there are many Americans with high percentages of Native American. Many of them want recognition by the government. Other Native Americans oppose them because they alack ny connection beyond blood to a Native American identity. I’m all for the truth but I fear that the cries for ignoring black ancestry in favor of appearance would put us back to the bad old days of qualifying good and bad hair. The brave civil rights leader who let us know that black was beautiful are in danger of being being forgotten. I cannot advocate amnesia.

  29. Chance

    Pam,

    I recommend you go study the history of the one drop rule (ODR) also known as the one drop blood rule. Also blackness is a type of consciousness, but some people change ethnic consciousness from one to another this happens all the time. I agree that many blacks are mixed but they call themselves black (African Americans) and not mixed people. So they are black because they identify black meaning black consciousness Identity. There are some people who are mixed with black but identify as mixed race, and do not identify as black. Some mixed race people identify as mixed race but if it is convenient to identify with being black only in certain situations they do. Also, the ODR has forced people to identify as black against their will. This is a democracy, and people have a right to choose there self ethnic identity. And, the problem is not about denying blackness if anything people with some black in them have been labeled and accepting their blackness while denying their Europeaness and other ethnicities they are mixed with. Denying ones other ancestries can be viewed as a type of racism and rejecting, why should blackness get priority all the time. If someone denies their blackness so what let them don’t worry about live your own life. Also many people have been denying one side of themselves while accepting blackness for a long time now, I say it better to claim all of ones ancestries.

  30. Pam

    Also it’s important to note that at this point in our history, as the US is moving towards a population predominately of color that mixed race people are more popular and used to represent all black people and mixed race couples are in vogue. The history of blacks in media has seen a shift from dark to light. Models will tell you that they’re in one year and out the next. It’s called divide and conquer. Think of Brazil all of those folks with the right to choose a black or white, morena, triqueno, octoroon or quadroon identity living in the favellas. While the white people in town continue to build their wealth and privlege.

  31. Pam

    Chance,

    By the way. I’m more than well acquainted with the one drop rule. I’m a big advocate of examining history and for that matter our current culture and media trends. I claim all of my ancestries with the knowledge that racism still exists.

  32. Chance

    @ Pam commenter 35,

    What do you mean by divide and conqueror please elucidate (explain).

  33. LSGH [LightSkinGoodHair]

    Thanks, Chance…but PLEASE understand that due to the current limitations on Mulatto media; you’re deemed an authority.

    best,

    kahlil

  34. Pam

    Chance,

    What I’m mean by divide and conquer here is that black people have occupied a space of resistance to a culture/government that has played games with all Americans. If you look at statistics about issues over the years, because of our history, black people have demonstrated healthy skepticism about many issues. The civil rights movement for example inspired other groups of marginalized people throughout the world. This much needed voice of opposition is disappearing. This is what I mean by divide and conquer. The history of white people in America, as scholars of whiteness studies will tell you, is just as flawed. Europeans who didn’t think of themselves racially threw in together, so to speak. Or conditions here gave them no choice. It can be argued that their success is due, in part to this phenomena, diverse as they were they were all white. Let me state clearly that I am of mixed heritage and have been taken for white, mostly Italian, and all of that. And I have received benefits and discrimination by both black and white people all around the issues of my race. I am not a black essentialist and race is and has always been a social contruct. The one drop rule was always flawed, as is the Latin model. That I’m calling the choose your own race idea. Which, from what I’m reading is giving voice to some ideas from the past that should’ve stayed there. Which is why I said in my 1st post that this is all very complex. I don’t pretend to have any answers but I would like to see that some of years of social activism and intellectual rigor that have shaped discussions of race (by a diverse group of scholars) were made central to our thinking, not the oft quoted “this is America where choice in all things is possible”.

  35. Chance

    Pam,

    Thank you for explaining your previous comment, yes things are very complicated when it comes to race and ethnicity in America. I also am convinced that blacks and mixed race people (mulattoes) can not sit back and continue down the road they have been going strategy wise. They need to add some new methods of operations to how they are going to deal with all of these problem that pertain to race.
    The old mulatto elite of light skin mixed race civil right leaders and black civil rights leaders are dying out, many that are alive are in their late 60s and 70s. I agree that if it was not for white Americans that the European white immigrants would have come to America, and separated into their own ethnic territories. Just like in Europe they live in separate countries. So in away they were forced to call themselves white as one large white American race.

    I am glad you see the one drop rule as flawed, because it is. Now you spoke of choose your own race idea as though this should not be allowed. What do you recommend to replace race. I say let people choose and be what ever they want. Also we don’t live in utopia were you can be race-less or ethnic-less, and culture-less we live in a world were these things exist. Maybe in the fixture people will be race-less, but I feel that as long as there are humans you will belong to some type of race or ethnicity.
    I know race is a social construct, but we live on earth and we humans use social construct and words to describe people, objects, situations, and things.

    I am all for discussions on the topics that are spoken here at chancellorfiles, and I want the topics that spoken here at chancellorfiles to be discussed publicly by scholar, intellectually, social activists, etc on television, radio, and movies, literature organizations and in politics. I want them to discuss the future of mixed race men and women who have some black ancestry but are mixed with other ethnic groups.

    I want them to discuss the future of the black race. I want them to discuss how whites, blacks, and mixed race people (mulattoes) will enter act with each other in the future. I want to hear them discuss on radio and television should mixed race people be allowed to identify as mixed race and will it be accepted as a category called mixed race. I want to hear them discuss how light skin mixed race women (mulattas) feel about living in America classified black. Do these mixed race women feel disrespected and mistreated by black women because they are mixed race? Do they feel that a dark skin black view them as trophy wife?

    I want all kinds of topics that are viewed as taboo discussed in publicly on the radio, television, books, coffee houses, on television during politics, and meetings and social functions. Only by talking about these things in publicly and other topics in public can we come to potential solutions.

    i speak of topics that many out there find taboo but someone has to say these things.

    By me speaking about these topics and many other subjects at this blog/website it opens up the dorrway for us all to dialogue, and multilogue about these issues that affect many of us.

  36. Pam

    Chance,

    I can’t say I disagree with what you’ve stated as your goals. And believe me that in my youth I felt more daily discrimination from blacks than whites. I was very light child with a parochial school education, mostly white school mates. I spoke standard English that I learned at home, got good grades and my black heritage was also Caribbean. I arrived at a black public school at the age of ten. And oh, did I say that I was as skinny as a rail and not very tall and wore glasses. All this is to say that I was threatened within an inch of my life daily. I was called every high yellow name in the book. I’ve recounted this history because by the time I got to High School and found my clique, I put all of this behind me. In hindsight I see the bad behavior of my schoolmates as the actions of frightened, weak and often abused children. What I think I’m hearing on this blog from your respondents is too personal and lacks a broader perspective. What are the crimes that victimized your readers? Viewed from an historical and political perspective people from the African diaspora continue to be overwhelmingly poor and reviled. So when I hear people use names like Sapphire etc.and express a desire to bear children of a lighter hue over other considerations like intelligence and good health it sounds like the same old stuff.

    Now I’m going to say something that I think you will not like. What I suspect has come true. In the last say 20-30 years some of us black and white have tried to take the fast lane to eliminating racial strife and inequality. Namely interracial marriage. Usually white women to black men. As I move through the world I meet many people lots of white women and I’m almost never impressed by their sensitivity to or knowledge of black people and culture. You see, whites never have to know about black people. We’d better know about them. I’m always wondering where all of these enlightened white wives come from that are popular with men. And as you’ve suggested elsewhere on this blog, lots of African American men have been influenced by the larger culture to actually discriminate against their own women. Not to mention their status as universal sex symbols. Believe me, I know there are black women who discriminate. But what I think I’m reading here is the result of this type of union. Mothers have more influence on children and we still live in a culture when the norm is white. It is impossible to couch these discussions in the language of personal choice. The comments about black people sound anachronistic and conformist. People can decry personal choice but, all too often I meet men who only date white women and say it’s their personal taste. If I had a dollar for every black women who has told me that she was actually discriminated against in dating I’d be rich. After a good date to be told your pretty and nice etc. but too dark, yikes!! White women have taken advantage of this situation knowingly or otherwise. No, the races are not as yet equal and there is no easy way around that. Also white privilege exists and is even practiced by whites in the black community. It is really hard to view these comments outside of the larger and centuries-long history of African, and whole lot of other folks, oppression by whites. It just sounds like a lot of people identifying with the winning side. Where’s the spirit of resistance, nonconformity and the knowledge of history?

  37. chance

    Pam,

    I personally am thinking outside the box of white and black, this is why I speak about being mixed race. Black men dating white well we have to understand opposite skin tones sometimes attract curiosity. Some White men date black women too. You have to understand one of the major reason s that black men in my opinion like women who are light and white women is because of the ODR (one drop rule). This ODR allows them to choose a wife who is yellow, yellowish, reddish white, beige, and white skin tone. Buy choosing women who are lighter but labeled black allows black men who are darker and caramel skin to say that they have chosen black wives. Darker skin black women and are then left in the cold.

    One of the realties is this, that as long as you have mixed race (mulattas) labeled black under the ODR black women who are dark skin will always be second class. One of the things that black women who are dark skin can do is allow for black women who are mulatta looking to be labeled mixed race and not black. This would then open up the doorway for black women who are darker to get jobs, modeling shoots, television appearances in movies and television, etc etc black men will always prefer variety of looks that are less black.

    Many dark skin black women support the ODR for the same reasons that the black men do. Many dark skin black women who are dark skin prefer light skin men too. I feel that many black women whom are dark skin feel oppressed and don’t want mixed raced light skin women to escape the ODR, and oppression of racism from whites and other ethnic groups. But buy supporting the ODR they keep themselves second class, but this obviously is small price to pay when compared to letting all of those beautiful light women and handsome light skin men escape the ODR and some of the oppression.

    I criticize whites for all of their nonsense too. Whites have many members among them who keep racism and psychological institutionalized racism. One of the ways to conquer a ruling class is to join them and increase your presence in their neighborhoods, jobs, interracial marriages, joining certain political organizations they control and while their push your ideology, etc etc. With out racial segregation whites will become smaller in numbers and will become mulattoes, these things help will break their power structure.

    Yes white privilege exist but like all ethnic groups that have been power whites to will decline in power and popularity. The mixed race people in the future are going to be what whites are today. The time period I live in is the starting point of this future mixed race and I am doing my part to help my fellow mixed race souls whom have not reincarnated yet.

  38. Marisol

    Chance,

    Thanks for the reasoned response. It sounds like you’ve thought this out.

  39. Chance

    Marisol,

    Thanks Marisol!!!

  40. Marisol

    Yes, I mean thought

  41. Marisol

    It was thought. Thanks

  42. Chance

    I made the correction and put thought Marisol.

  43. Marie

    This is a great discussion. I think the author lacks scholastic objectivity and readers should understand that he is speaking from his opinion.

    Why do so many of the respondents feel they need to detail their ethnic make-up or skin color to support their idea? If i took the time to survey the respondents to their skin tones, I would surmise that the lighter a respondent is the more likely they are to agree wit the author of this post. Which shows how division amongst those who are descendants of African is an open wound to their spirits and facilitates a pshychosis that seems to be beyond repair.

    I really feel sorry for you all. I promise you that no one mixed with German&Scottish or French&English have this thorough of a conversation about their ethnicities.

    Skin priviledge is the reason Broyard chose to not detail his racial make-up. He wanted to escape racism. We dont know if he didnt appreciate his African ancestry or not.

    As far as the woman who pledges to have a light baby, that is one of the most severe forms of self-hated I have ever witnessed. My heart goes out to you for believing that you are not beautiful enough to produce a child that you would want to look like you. I pray for your self-realization and self-validation. I think it would be poetic justice if you gave birth to a “throwback baby” (Oops, im giving away clues to my background)

    Having read tons of articles and information on the subject (this is the focus of my graduate studies) I understand that there is alot of historical factors and psychological information that many of you do not consider. But continue to speak from your hearts…

    “Mette milate enhaut choual, li va di negresse pas so maman.”
    (Put a mulatto on horseback, and he’ll tell you his mother was’nt a negress.)

    Marie

  44. Chance

    Marie said: I really feel sorry for you all. I promise you that no one mixed with German&Scottish or French&English have this thorough of a conversation about their ethnicities.

    My response: Because they are white, wherefore the mixed people are mixed with white black and with other ethnicities.

  45. ;D

    May I have your opinion(s) re: the following:

    * http://www.PrettyYellow.blogspot.com *

    Thank you!

  46. Chance

    The site is dedicated to mixed race/mulatto people and I like the site for highlighting the reality that mixed race/mulatto people with pretty tones exist. Thanks for the link.

  47. Jen

    Yes, I like this site too-PrettyYellow.blogspot.com — and it’s on point: Light is Beautiful (just like black is beautiful).

  48. Marie

    ” My response: Because they are white, wherefore the mixed people are mixed with white black and with other ethnicities. ”

    And your point is…???
    because my point is that there is a huge ethnic and cultural difference between germans&scots and french&english. there are far less differences between the american black and the american white. whites mixed with different european nationalities do not use their ethnicites as dividing identities worthy of question and discomfort or reconciliation. why do black people?
    another question, what is the difference between a puerto rican or cuban and a creole. they are both made of african slave, european slavemaster and native american bloodlines. is it that creoles want to have a separate classification as these island people do?

    but remember this, socially and historically, that little drop of african blood that is so genetically dominant, keeps ALL people who possess it as second class citizens and subject to unfair treatment. think about light actresses like dorothy dandridge and freddi washington (imitation of life). dandrige was offered the role as cleopatra but because of her african blood, the part was given to elizabeth taylor, even though cleopatra looked more like dorothy than elizabeth.
    as a modern example, some sociologists did the doll test and asked children which doll was prettier. they chose the white one. the first test was in the 1950’s. but the one im refering to was done this year. so, you see not much has changed.
    creole is an adjective, which means it describes something. like a rug or vase is oriental, but a person is asian. asian because they have a land to identify themselves to, as all people should. food or music is creole, but a people with no land is a people with no identity. so in the same lines of thought as the scot, english, french, or german, i ask what are creoles connecting themselves to?
    when i hear “creole” after yummy gumbo (which is a word of AFRICAN origin) i think of rape, slavery, hatred, self hated and perpetuation of these atrocities by the victims and passed off as survival.

    read ‘cane river’ by lalita tademy or ‘feast of all saints’ by anne rice. rent the movie, ‘the human stain’ they will give you more insight into the awesomly pointlessness of ethnic division.

    you cant call it ethnic pride cuz the darkest of people in louisiana and have the same culture as the so-called creoles.

    like my marrain would say, “its not what you call me, its what i answer to”

    marie

  49. Chance

    Marie wrote: And your point is…???
    because my point is that there is a huge ethnic and cultural difference between germans&scots and french&english. there are far less differences between the american black and the american white. whites mixed with different european nationalities do not use their ethnicites as dividing identities worthy of question and discomfort or reconciliation. why do black people?

    My response: In Africa there are huge ethnic and cultural (tribes, languages, music, food, history, etc) differences between black people who live in Africa but they still are black because black is genetically and biologically based and so is white. White and black are racial groups’ first not ethnic groups first, they are ethnic groups second. Hispanic (Latino) in the Americas is an ethnic group first and not a racial group. Member of an ethnic group can look like anything. African America is a racial group first.

    Marie wrote: but remember this, socially and historically, that little drop of african blood that is so genetically dominant, keeps ALL people who possess it as second class citizens and subject to unfair treatment. think about light actresses like dorothy dandridge and freddi washington (imitation of life). dandrige was offered the role as cleopatra but because of her african blood, the part was given to elizabeth taylor, even though cleopatra looked more like dorothy than Elizabeth.

    My response: What do you mean by African blood being dominant? African blood is dominate sometimes depending on ancestries, and how genes pair up. Look at the actor Wentworth Miller, he has a black father and white British Mother (his mother is from England) but Wentworth came out looking totally white, and he shows no visible signs of black ancestry, and this is why even though whites know he has a black father they accept him as white. In general black blood being dominate is actually in correct in many situations.

    The singer El Debarge has a black American mother and white Father (Robert Debarge sr he French ancestry) the white in El is very very visible when you look at his phenotype. In the case of Vanessa Williams and Terrence Howard the white is very visible to a high degree also based upon their phenotypes. What percentages you of white and black blood you have in your genes could vary. You could totally white on the outside but be predominantly black in genes and blood on the inside. You can look totally black on the outside and be predominately white on the inside when it comes to your genes and blood. In the case of Mel B (Melanie Brown of spice girls) her phenotype (physical appearance) is black but Mel B’s mother is a white woman and her father is black.

    Cleopatra was of Macedonian Greek origins it is still people are still debating was she black or white? There is a possibility she was an olive skin mulatta or being of Macedonian Greek descent she was olive skin. Dorothy Dandridge looks closer in phenotype skin tone to black than mixed race lighter skin tones. We know for a fact that Cleopatra had white in her because she was a descendant of Macedonian Greeks. If she had black how much and where did it come from meaning which family member had black ancestry was it her mother of father?

    It was safer to go with elizbeth Taylor because there was no dispute about whether Cleopatra had white ancestry.

    Marie wrote: as a modern example, some sociologists did the doll test and asked children which doll was prettier. they chose the white one. the first test was in the 1950’s. but the one im refering to was done this year. so, you see not much has changed.

    My response: I wrote about Kiri Davis she did the same Doll test. Why did these black American children choose the white doll as prettier? Many dark skin and caramel brown skin blacks consider light skin blacks prettier (yellow skin tones, beige skin, or white skin) because they are mixed with white. Did these children learn it from their black parents, television, other sources, or could it be that they though the doll was pretty because it looked different from the black doll. The black children saw that the black doll was closer in skin color to them (black kids).

    So they found the white doll more attractive because it looked different not because they really considered is prettier because it represented the white race. They simply found it to be more fascinating because it looked different and this difference was fascinating to them. A girl like me by kiri Davis in this video the Doll test was given

    Marie wrote: creole is an adjective, which means it describes something. like a rug or vase is oriental, but a person is asian. asian because they have a land to identify themselves to, as all people should. food or music is creole, but a people with no land is a people with no identity. so in the same lines of thought as the scot, english, french, or german, i ask what are creoles connecting themselves to? when i hear “creole” after yummy gumbo (which is a word of AFRICAN origin) i think of rape, slavery, hatred, self hated and perpetuation of these atrocities by the victims and passed off as survival.

    My response: Many words are adjectives, which is nothing new. Creole is of the Latin system like Hispanics are French people are Latinos too. Mulattoes, Creoles, Hispanics (Hispanics of the Americas), and Pardos of Brazil are ethnic cultures, and not racial groups like Asians, whites, and blacks. You can’t compare ethnic cultures to racial groups they two are totally different.

    What do you mean by creoles are filled with self hatred, and what do you base this upon? Many creoles love being creoles, and are not filled with self hatred they love their creole culture. Creoles were their own ethnic group with a distinct culture until white American Anglos bought the state of Louisiana from France.

    Marie wrote: you cant call it ethnic pride cuz the darkest of people in louisiana and have the same culture as the so-called creoles.
    like my marrain would say, “its not what you call me, its what i answer to”

    My response: yes that is true, because it is a know fact to people who study or have met creoles that there are three types of creoles. The white creoles, creoles of color (mixed race mulatto type creoles), and black creoles (dark skin and caramel brown). So Creole is an ethnic culture not a racial group. You need to do some studying before you make these claims.

    When people say I am mixed race, mulatto, Creole, etc and those are the names they want to be called other people should call them by those names because the mixed race, mulattoes, creoles, etc will answer to them.

    The Human stain was inspired by Anatole Broyard the writer (author) knew Anatole Broyard before Anatole died. Anatole had reviewed some books by the author of the Human stain. Coleman Silks was partially inspired and based upon Anatole Broyard according to the author.

  50. Chance

    @ Marie,

    Attention readers: [Mary] Lefkowitz book not out of Africa was written to refute a book called out of AFRICA. Mary is viewed as a racist professor by some scholars in the world of academia.. At the same time in her book not out of Africa there is a good quote that is very interesting regarding Cleopatra. It is that quote that I have posted below. I am not endorsing her book, the quotes is very interesting.

    Quote: [Mary] Lefkowitz [author of Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History (1996)] begins by noting that, until recently, it never even occurred to anybody to ask this question. The information we have identifies her as a Macedonian Greek. Her ancestors were Ptolemies, descended from one of Alexander’s generals. Cleopatra was a name traditionally given to women in the royal family, so, as you indicated, there
    were in fact previous Cleopatras. The one in question here was Cleopatra VII, daughter of Ptolemy XII and his sister (ewww). Sticking with the tradition of keeping it in the family, she married two of her own brothers in succession (the first “died in suspicious circumstances, [and] she had the second murdered,” which is definitely taking sibling rivalry to extremes). . . .

    Lefkowitz does note that there is a slight possibility that Cleopatra might not have been a full-blooded Macedonian Greek, because we don’t know the precise identity of her father’s mother. Apparently, grandma was not the wife of gramps, but his mistress (maybe he wanted to taste the forbidden fruit of somebody outside his immediate family, like a cousin). The assumption has always been that grandma was another Macedonian Greek, because the Ptolemies were a bit xenophobic, and somebody would likely have written about a foreigner being that close to gramps (examples of such writings exist when it happened with others).

    Lefkowitz notes that most writers who have raised the question at hand here haven’t been ancient historians. She says the first American writer to suggest that Cleopatra had a black ancestor was J.A. Rogers, in World’s Great Men of Color. Unfortunately, Rogers somewhat muddled Cleopatra’s family history, claiming her father was Ptolemy XIII (nope, Ptolemy XII) and her grandfather was Ptolemy XI (nope, Ptolemy IX). Then he claimed that Ptolemy XIII (who was actually Cleopatra’s brother and husband and cousin and, oh, you get the idea) showed pronounced Negro traits–although this claim doesn’t seem to have any actual support.

    Some of the evidence used to support the claim of Cleopatra’s alleged African roots come from, of all places, Shakespeare. In Anthony and Cleopatra, Shakespeare called her “tawny.” Rogers and other supporters claim this was a 17th-century way to
    describe mulattoes, and since Shakespeare obviously thought of her that way, she must have been.

    The evidence of busts and reliefs from the Cleopatra’s time period, don’t seem to support the “black” image.

  51. Marie

    Thank you for being so thorough in your responses.
    To cite Mary Lefkowitz as a credible source on the subject is like asking a native new yorker how to make a roux. this woman is a professor of humanities, not an egyptologist or anthropologist. her research is shoddy at best, and unfortunately the woman isnt qualifies to speak as a scholar on the subject. no one in academic circles takes her or her works seriously.
    since when did ancient greeks become white? eurasian at best.

    btw, we dont use the words “tribe” when refering to african ethnic groups anymore. do people call it a french tribe? even the term germanic tribe is only used when refering to ancient anglo groups. actually, there are more ppl in the ‘tribes’ you speak of than in entire counties of europe.

    i agree that hispanic is an ethnic group. there is no such thing as a multiple racial groups. we know that race is a social construct and not a scientific one because scientifically, there is only one race (human) the divisions amonst them are ethnic.

    melanin is dominate. anything that contains melanin is dominate.

    i didnt say creole are filled w/ hatred. where did u get that? i said…well you quoted me, u can see what i said.

    i would like to take your advice and do some more studying before making these claims, but im already getting a PhD on this issue, and was raised in the culture , so some would say i am an authority on this subject.

  52. Chance

    Marie Wrote: Thank you for being so thorough in your responses.
    To cite Mary Lefkowitz as a credible source on the subject is like asking a native new yorker how to make a roux. this woman is a professor of humanities, not an egyptologist or anthropologist. her research is shoddy at best, and unfortunately the woman isnt qualifies to speak as a scholar on the subject. no one in academic circles takes her or her works seriously.
    since when did ancient greeks become white? eurasian at best.

    btw, we dont use the words “tribe” when refering to african ethnic groups anymore. do people call it a french tribe? even the term germanic tribe is only used when refering to ancient anglo groups. actually, there are more ppl in the ‘tribes’ you speak of than in entire counties of europe.

    My response: Regarding Mary Lefkowitz it is her quote from her book that I felt that readers would find interesting. So I have put up an attention to readers in that comment. I feel also, that Mary was angry that black Afrocentric books documented certain culture achievements as coming from Africa, and this is why she wrote her book not out of Africa. She is also viewed as a racist, but her quote from her book was very interesting.

    Who are the we that you are talking regarding not using the tribe to refer to African ethnic groups? From my encounters with blacks from Africa the word tribe is used constantly to refer to what tribe a particular black person is from. Each tribe has its own culture. Europeans don’t go by tribal names like the Gauls, Anglo Saxons, franks, Visigoths, etc anymore they call each other according to the country of origin. The major reason Europeans and whites who live in the diaspora don’t go by tribal names any more is because the countries of Europe have been unified as individual countries, and all of the tribes that once lived in those countries became united as one nation. This means that the Gauls and other tribes in ancient France became united and now call themselves the French (one white people no longer different tribes), in Germany the Franks and other tribes became untied as Germans living in Germany as one people, and no longer different tribes. This is how it happen throughout all of Europe with every European country. Once in a while an Englishman will be called an Anglo Saxon or a Frenchman a Gaul but this is rare.

    Marie wrote: melanin is dominate. anything that contains melanin is dominate.


    My response:
    That is true, melanin is dominate even white people have some melanin in them, and so do all of the other racial and ethnic groups. Only albinos don’t have any melanin in them.

  53. Marie

    when i say, “we” regarding tribes, i mean academic circles.
    what do you mean by “Europeans and whites who live in the diaspora”? besides the penal colonies in place like georgia and australia, there are no europeans and whites who have a diaspora to live in. diaspora is used to define people and decendants of people forced to leave their native country due to war or slavery. the connotation of the word “tribe” suggest primitivism and was introduced by whites to classify people of color. true, african people use the word, but they use another word introduced by white people to describe themselves too, it starts with an ‘N’. But that doesn make it ok.
    other terms that are ethnocentric, racist and elitist include
    New World- new to whom, not the indegenious ppl living there before Colombus arrived
    Slave- a person lives in slavery or is enslaved, not naturally born one.
    Slave owner- same rationale; the term ‘plantation owner’ is more acceptable. to state that one person was owned and another person was the owner, gives credence to an institution that was immoral and unjust. 200 years after the enslavement period or slavery (that word is acceptable since it suggests an era, not ppl) then we must restructure the language to reflect modern perception of the historical event.
    black (people)- a better term is Black people, suggesting a proper pronoun for person and not the improper pronoun for a thing. (i admit i get lazy on this one)
    and because im such a nice and culturally sensitive person, i capitalize the “C” in Creole when writing formally (as opposed to internet) since i recognize them as a social group. the jury is still out on if i regard it as an ethnic group because it seems to not clarify if it is by birth or by location of birth.
    I say this because one of the definitions of Creole is a person native to Louisiana (and other French and Spanish colonized places ofcourse)
    another question, other states have the same french and spanish owned histories. mobile alabama and pensacola florida have small but significant Creole populations, are they considered “real” Creoles?
    also, if a person has 1 Creole parent and the other parent is of another ethnicity, is she or he still Creole
    Is Bliss Broyard Creole, her mom is white. Is Beyonce Creole, her dad is black.
    A popular saying amongst Creoles is that “a Creole is anyone who says he is.”

  54. Chance

    Marie wrote: another question, other states have the same french and spanish owned histories. mobile alabama and pensacola florida have small but significant Creole populations, are they considered “real” Creoles?

    My response: If that is what they call themselves then yes.

    Marie wrote:also, if a person has 1 Creole parent and the other parent is of another ethnicity, is she or he still Creole
    Is Bliss Broyard Creole, her mom is white. Is Beyonce Creole, her dad is black.
    A popular saying amongst Creoles is that “a Creole is anyone who says he is.”

    My response: If that is what they choose to call themselves then yes. You can always change your ethnic culture but not your race. Culture and self identification are like nick names you can always caching them.




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