Creoles, Mulattoes, And ODR (mulatto elite and creole culture)

 

Chance writes: This is the history of how the one drop blood rule known as the ODR affected Creoles and mulattoes in an unpleasant way, and caused both of these ethnic groups to suffer racism and mistreatment at the hands of white Anglo saxon Americans.      

Creoles, Mulattoes, And ODR

 (mulatto elite and creole culture)

By Chance Kelsey, Chancellorfiles.com

  Chance: America was conquered by various European countries, and those European countries controlled various parts of the United states Of America. France, England, and Spain were the major countries that colonized the Untied states of America. In Louisiana the French established colony their and so did the Spaniards.

Among the citizens of Louisiana were a group of people called the creoles, the creoles were of three groups. The white creoles, the creoles of color, and black creoles. The state of Louisiana was named after King Louis XIV of France in French Louisiane , land of Louis.

In the English speaking parts of America that were controlled by the British there was a group called the mulattoes. The mulattoes were of mixed race, they were mixed with white and black, and some were mixed with white, black, and Native dark American. The creoles of color (free people of color) were also mixed race they were mixed with white French and black, and, some of them were mixed with white French, black, Spanish (Spain), and Native American. The mulattoes were mixed with Anglo Saxon white (England) and black, the creoles were mixed White French and Black. Both Creoles and mulattoes were known to be very good looking, many of them had light skin and good hair, good just meant that the hair was a combination of white and black hair texture mixed or the hair was the type of hair that white people had.

This was not to say that black hair type was bad, good hair was just a term used to distinguish between the black hair texture (coarse) and white hair texture or hair that was a combination of white and black hair texture mixed. Both Creoles and mulattoes had good looking octoroon and quadroon men and women among them. The females were know for their beauty to the point that white men even found them attractive, there have been books written that details the beauty of the mixed race women from the creole of color and mulattoes. Some Creoles of color owned slaves in the state of Louisiana, and had big plantations work slaves did all of the work. In various slave states down south certain mulattoes also owned slaves, and had big plantations too – the creoles of color and mulattoes who owned black slaves were often very wealthy and financially established. Some mulattoes and Creoles were wealthy and had more money than many whites.

Creoles of color and mulattoes can in variety of skin tones and hair textures. Some were white and showed no visible signs of black ancestry nor signs of being mixed with other ancestries. These types of creoles and mulattoes who showed no signs of black ancestry but looked white in phenotype were Octoroon looking. Then you have quadroon looking, some with yellowish skin, yellowish brown, reddish yellow, beige skin, and Caramel brown skin. Some people had blue eyes, green eyes, black or brown eyes, and various hair textures. The French and Spaniards were catholics and so they brought catholicism Americas. The majority the creoles were catholics, and the majority of the mulattoes were protestant Christians.

Chance: The and mulattoes did not follow the ODR (one drop rule), that said if you have one drop of black blood in you then you are black. Among Mulattoes and Creoles of color you could have visible black ancestry, and still not be considered black. Creoles went by the Latin system of racial and ethnic classification. In the Latin system of ethnic and racial classification your physical appearance determined what your race or ethnicity is. The mulattoes also, did not view mulattoes who had visible black ancestry as black, they went by your physical appearance just like the Creoles did. In the English speaking Southern slave states all people of mixed race were called mulattoes. Some mulattoes were free and some mulattoes were in slavery along with the blacks.

The first generation Creoles of color and mulattoes were children of white men with black slave women. As time went on Creoles of color married other creoles of color, and mulattoes married mulattoes thus becoming endogamous. The majority of the creoles spoke French and the mulattoes spoke English. The mulattoes and creoles of color had many educated people among them and they had their own communities and businesses also. South Carolina and Alabama had very powerful mulatto elites, and many of them were Quadroons and Octoroons. All throughout the South there were communities of mulattoes, the mulattoes were sometimes called Coloureds and persons of color. The creoles of color were also called Coloureds too. The term Coloured during slavery and after slavery ended always meant a person who was mixed race mulatto or creole. A black person was not a Coloured. Many creoles who were wealthy sent their children to be educated in France. The Creole elite participated in local politics too in New Orleans, Louisiana too.

Creoles had more freedom in the state of Louisiana than mulattoes had among English speaking whites.

So when it came to which group had the most civil rights and privileges by law, Creole living in Louisiana had more civil rights than the mulattoes living in other states that were controlled by English speaking whites. The French treated their mixed race people a little better than the English speaking whites treated their mixed race people (mulattoes).

The one drop rule (ODR) was created in the state of Ohio in the 1830s, and it spreaded gradually to the other states. it was only a social custom but it was not a state or federal law. By it only a social cultural custom this is explains why there were mulattoes walking around free, and why they were called mulattoes and people of color instead of just black (negro). France then sold the state of Louisiana to America. The more English speaking white Anglo Saxons moved into the state of Louisiana the more things began to change for the worst for the creoles of color, white creole, and black creoles.

April 30, 1803—The United States and France concluded the Louisiana Purchase Treaty in which France sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States for about $11,250,000. There were additional costs and interest payments so that the total amount owed was almost $27,000,000.

Dec., 1803—Louisiana officially joined the United States.

Now that the United States of America owned the state of Louisiana, all of the racial tensions that English speaking whites had with the mulattoes and blacks were now transferred and brought to the Louisiana. The next 100 years white Anglo Saxons and politicians began to gradually limit the privileges that the creoles of color had when they were controlled by France and Spain. France controlled Louisiana first and then after many years sold it to Spain, and years later France and Spain signed a treaty that allowed France to buy the state of Louisiana back from Spain.

The Creoles did not like the way white Anglo Saxons (colonist who descended from from England) viewed race and ethnicity. The Anglo Saxon whites did not respect that there was a difference between creoles of color and blacks (negros), creoles of color had their own culture that was heavily influenced by France and Spain. White Anglos gradually increased in the area for the next 100 years, and then they introduced the ODR (one drop rule), the one drop rule was also called the one drop blood rule and it stated that one drop of black blood makes you a Negro (black).

From the 1870s all the way up to 1900 Creoles lost a lot of political power in Louisiana, and their status as a unique separate endogamous ethnic group with their own culture became more and more irrelevant in the eyes of the white Anglo Saxons whom many were now politicians, judges, Law enforcement officers, voters, business owners, etc in the state of Louisiana.

Whites began to push the one drop blood rule more and more, and it had become socially acceptable by whites that because Creoles of color had some black ancestry they are to be considered black. The creoles now powerless to stop the ODR (one drop rule or one drop blood rule) knew that racial discrimination would get even worst and they would continue to be treated like blacks. This forced creoles who looked totally white in phenotype to either choose to remain creole of color of pass for white to avoid racial discrimination and mistreatment. These Quadroon and Octoroon creoles of color who could pass for white felt very sad, because some of them had family members who were light skin but could not pass for white. This meant that they would be labeled black and mistreated and racially discriminate against by whites. This caused many creoles of color emotional pain, forced to make a choice for a better life free of racial discrimination or acknowledge in certain situations that you are Creole and end up being labeled black by whites in society whom interact with you. Thus opening your self up to racial discrimination. Some creoles passed for white but remained in contact with their family members who could not pass. Some served all ties with their family members who could not pass.

In 1910 the State of Tennessee was the first state in America to pass the one drop blood rule law. From 1910 all the way up to 1930 all states by 1930 had the one drop blood rule law on their law books, the states that anyone with one drop of black blood is automatically a black person. The mulattoes also had become victims of the one drop blood rule, mulattoes (mixed race of black and white) who could pass for white many of them joined the white race, some who could pass chose to remain mulattoes and then were forced to start calling themselves black.

In 1967 the supreme court in the case of Richard Loving and Mildred Loving vs. the state of Virgina the supreme court of America removed and struck down the the one drop blood rule law and anti interracial marriage law(anti miscegenation). The Government and the 50 states no longer support the ODR but there are still some blacks, whites, and certain members of other non white ethnic groups who still support the ODR.

The ODR is socially still in affect must fight against this pathology that has caused so much pain and suffering for mixed race people whom are mulattoes and creoles. Mixed race people should be allowed to claim all of their heritages and ancestries, without being forced to choose one ancestry only.

The ODR will disappear from America society someday I have no doubts about it.

 

Nov. 3, 1762—France ceded Louisiana to Spain in a secret treaty. England took Spanish Florida and the French territory north of the Isle of Orleans and east of the Mississippi River.
1763—The Jesuits were banished from Louisiana.
March, 1766—Don Antonio de Ulloa, the Spanish Governor arrived in Louisiana. He made many mistakes but he tried to govern well.
Spring, 1768—Spain ordered the colonists to use only Spanish ships for trade in only Spanish ports.
Oct., 1768—Some rebels plotting a revolution against the Spanish called a convention to condemn Ulloa and commanded him to leave Louisiana, which he did fearing for his life.
Oct., 1769—The rebels were executed by Spanish troops led by Lieutenant General Alejandro O’Reilly who had arrived to become the new governor of Louisiana.
Spring, 1770—O’Reilly had reorganized the Louisiana colony politically and economically.
Dec. 1, 1769—Colonel Unzaga became governor of Louisiana. He appointed Creoles to important government positions as had O’Reilly before him. Unzaga initiated the planting of tobacco in Louisiana, granted land to immigrants, made treaties with Indians, and encouraged trade.
Jan., 1777—Don Bernardo de Galvez became governor because Unzaga retired.
1778—Americans and British came to Louisiana to find refuge from the RevolutionaryWar. They were welcome as long as they were willing to obey the laws of the territory.
May, 1779—Spain declared war against England. By the end of August, Galvez and the Spanish troops had captured Baton Rouge from the British. This battle was important because the British were unable to gain control of the territory.
Jan., 1780—Galvez and his troops laid siege to British-held Mobile and forced the British to surrender in March, 1780.
May 10, 1781—Penascola and West Florida surrendered to the Spanish troops.
1785—Galvez was appointed Captain General of Cuba and Governor of West Florida and Louisiana. In addition, he was made Viceroy of New Spain which included all of Spain’s territories north of Central America.
1785-1803—Louisiana had five different governors during this time who tried to rule it as a colony of Spain: Colonel Don Estevan Miro who was a progressive governor in the style of Unzaga; Don Francisco Luis Hector, Baron de Carondelet who was a good administrator and would not allow the Creoles to imitate the French Revolution and overthrow the government; Don Manuel Gayoso de Lemos was well respected; Marquis de Casa Calvo was the governor when the French reclaimed the territory of Louisiana with the Treaty of San Ildefonso in 1800; Brigadier General Juan Manuel de Salcedo governeduntil November 30, 1803 when he turned Louisiana over to the French.
March 26, 1803—Pierre Clement de Lausaat arrived in New Orleans for the transfer of Louisiana back to France.
April 30, 1803—The United States and France concluded the Louisiana Purchase Treaty in which France sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States for about $11,250,000. There were additional costs and interest payments so that the total amount owed was almost $27,000,000.
Dec., 1803—Louisiana officially joined the United States.
March 2, 1805—Louisiana became an “organized” territory. This meant that the President of the United States named a Secretary of the Territory, a thirteen member Legislative Council, a federal District Judge, and three judges of the Superior Court. In addition, a Legislature was appointed by the President. The people were allowed to elect a twenty-five member lower house, as well.
1804-1805—Louisiana was divided into twelve counties and the Territory of Orleans into nineteen parishes (following an old Spanish custom).
1808—A civil law code was adopted.
April 18, 1812—Congress approved a state constitution.
April 30, 1812—Louisiana became the eighteenth state of the United States.
1812—The United States declared war on Britain.
1814—Battle of Lake Borgne won by the British.
Jan. 8, 1815 Battle of New Orleans won by the Americans and led to the Treaty of Ghent ending the War of 1812. 

 

 


  1. Chance

    On the essay titled Anatole Broyard the Creole

    LSGH [LightSkinGoodHair] Says:
    Sunday, October 21, 2007 at 10:23 pm
    Thanks, Chance…but PLEASE understand that due to the current limitations on Mulatto media; you’re deemed an authority.
    best,
    kahlil

    Chance: I hear you on that LSGH, I will try my best to write about these mulatto (that will include creole, and mixed race) issues and be as accurate as possible when quoting history, references, and sources.

  2. AP

    Chance wrote:The mulattoes and creoles of color
    had many educated people among
    them and they had their own
    communities and businesses also …
    All throughout the South there
    were communities of mulattoes,
    the mulattoes were sometimes called
    Coloureds and persons of color…
    The term Coloured during slavery and
    after slavery ended always meant
    a person who was mixed race …
    A black person was not a Coloured.”

    AP’s response:

    Chance, you are so completely right about this.

    In fact, even after the racist ‘Racial
    Integrity Law’ (which applied the racist
    ‘One-Drop Rule’ unilaterally to every
    person with any amount of Black lineage)
    was passed in 1924 (due largely to the
    activism of the fascist-inspiring White
    racial-supremacist named Walter Plecker)
    –– there were still many, many entire
    communities in the United Stated composed
    essentially of Mixed-Race individuals.

    In addition, historically, in the
    United States, the term ‘Colored’
    was used essentially as a way of
    stating that a person was, in
    fact, Mixed-Race, while the term
    ‘Negro’ was used to describe
    the people who were Full-Black.

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1573
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1570

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1527
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3357
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1385

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/2511

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3514
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3517
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3564
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/2437
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/2361
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/2271
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3543

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1691
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3578

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1572
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/2240

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3331

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1239

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/2885
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1574
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1400
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1747
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/2362

  3. AP

    Chance wrote:The mulattoes and creoles of color
    had many educated people among
    them and they had their own
    communities and businesses also…
    All throughout the South there
    were communities of mulattoes,
    the mulattoes were sometimes called
    Coloureds and persons of color…
    The term Coloured during slavery and
    after slavery ended always meant
    a person who was mixed race…
    A black person was not a Coloured.”

    AP’s response:

    Chance, you are so completely

    Chance, you are so completely right about this.
    In fact, even after the racist ‘Racial
    Integrity Law’ (which applied the racist
    ‘One-Drop Rule’ unilaterally to every
    person with any amount of Black lineage)
    was passed in 1924 (due largely to the
    activism of the fascist-inspiring White
    racial-supremacist named Walter Plecker)
    –– there were still many, many entire
    communities in the United Stated composed
    essentially of Mixed-Race individuals.

    In addition, historically, in the
    United States, the term ‘Colored’
    was used essentially as a way of
    stating that a person was, in
    fact, Mixed-Race, while the term
    ‘Negro’ was used to describe
    the people who were Full-Black.

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1573
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1570

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1527
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3357
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1385

     

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/2511

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3514
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3517
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3564
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/2437
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/2361
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/2271
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3543

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1691
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3578

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1572 http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/2240

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3331

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1239

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/2885
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1574
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1400
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1747
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/2362

  4. Chance

    @ AP,

    Thanks for all the links, I have read some of them and they are a source and reference they are very useful. I continue to learn more and more the more — I study about the history of us mixed race people. You have done a lot of research, trust me I respect that.
    Keep up the good work!!!

  5. AP

    Hi Chance,

    You are more than welcomed !!

    The work you are doing — in supporting
    everyone who is Mixed-Race (via either their ‘parentage’ or their ‘lineage’)
    in embracing all of who and what they
    are and in not allowing themselves to
    live under a ‘racist ruling’ — is great !!

    Please continue to keep up
    the good work here as well !! 😀

    — AP

  6. Chance

    @ AP,

    I sure will try my best to keep it up, and lending my support.

    Peace on That!!!

  7. It’s about time that American is Finally coming to it’s senses and recognizing that Creoles, Mixed race ,Mulattos,Black Indians within the African/American Community, are not one and the same

    Within the White Race you have Irish, Germans, Italians,French and Swedes, just to name a few , whom all have very unique and different Cultures and yet not one group is in denial of their Racial background,Then why can’t there be people that share similar African Racial characteristics but yet possess different Cultural Values…

    From the time that I could remember, I’ve never felt that I could identify with or feel very comfortable with being just Black , and I’m sure Many Mulattos felt the same…My Mother ,who had blond hair and blue eyes and very White in appearence never quite felt comfortable in a Black society and I know it was a big burden for her to bear, but that was Our fate, now, We no longer want to have to accept a life style that has been forced on us because of the one drop rule..

    We Mulattoes are very,very proud of our African Heritage, but we are just as proud of Our European heritage as well…My brother ,Who also has Blond hair and blue eyes always associated with Whites because they accepted him for what they “THOUGHT” he was…All my life, like many Mulattos and Creoles I was looked upon as someone other than Black because I did’nt look Black…but in the Black community
    I was not Black enough to fit the mold, an out cast from both sides..

    As I grow older in age I find that being a person of mixed parents makes Me more proud ,because there is no one else in the world like Us and that surely makes Us different.Now I can be Truly proud of what I really am and I am very happy that American is finally realizing that We are and should be ,a seperate Minority Group…like our grandparents were, prior to 1924..

    Thanks for good work…Augustine/Comeaux…Web site producer frenchcreoles.com

  8. Chance

    @ Augustine/Comeaux,

    Good to see you come by again and you are right, I agree totally. It is time for us mixed race people to be regconized for contributions to the western world.

    Good to hear from you again Augustine/Comeaux.

  9. Carmen Uter, Creole-American Geneslogical Society

    This an excellent article. Aside from a few incorrect grammatical usages, the entire article is absolutely truthful and spectacular.

    This reply is by:
    Carmen Uter, Founder/Director of CAGS, the
    non-profit, Creole-American Genealogical Society, founded in 1983 for research of the ancestries of mixed – race Americans.




Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s



%d bloggers like this: