Eugenics, Genetics, And Society

  Eugenics, Genetics, And Society

By Chance Kelsey,


Sir Francis Galton was a British social scientist he was born on February 16, 1822 and died on January 17, 1911. Galton was Charles Darwin’s cousin. Francis Galton coined the term eugenics in 1883 the word eugenics means good breeding. The goal of eugenics is to improve the genetic quality of the population regarding intelligence, health, conscientiousness, and moral character. Eugenicists have been concerned with increasing the over all health, higher intelligence, eliminating diseases, and increasing the moral character of the population by selective breeding. This selective breeding is really not new to humanity it has been going on for thousands of years in one form or another.

In eugenics selective breeding means when men and women procreate with someone whom they are compatible with the marriage partner must be highly intelligent, educated, morally developed, healthy, employed, and conscientious.
It is better to have more educated people than uneducated, healthy over unhealthy (sickly), good moral character over weaker moral character, intelligent over unintelligent. Basically eugenics is saying marry and have children with someone on your intelligence level, in good health, employed, and of good moral character.
Europe And Eugenics
During the European renaissance and medieval time periods Kings, Queens, and the aristocracy married high class society people whom were of nobility. The social elite of society seldom married serfs and peasants (socially lower class people) who had nothing to offer because they were poor. During those times periods in Europe many of the poorer did not live long due to bad health, illnesses, starvation famine, killed by other people because they did not have the means to protect themselves to the same degree that the social elite had, and I personally believe that stress and depression of daily living also contributed to the early deaths of some of these poor peasants.
The result of the social elite which was made up of Kings, Queens, and the aristocracy marrying other socially elite people was a class of healthy, educated, intelligent, employed, financially secure, consciousness, and morally developed people. The children born between these socially elite men and women displayed the same qualities of their parents. Many children born to the serfs and peasants often died in child birth, and some died at a young age.   
Combined with the poor people already living shorter life spans than the aristocracy, the results were the population was heavily replenished with healthy, educated, highly intelligent, morally developed people. These children grew up to become kings, Queens, business people, explorers, scientists, Doctors, government officials, religious leaders, educators, artists (painters) and many other important positions in life. Europe experienced some of its greatest cultural achievements during the time periods from 13th to the mid 19th century.
It is a known fact, that in order for an advanced civilization to continue progressing economically, educationally, good health, and continue having a democracy type government that civilization must have enough citizen who are educated, intelligent, and morally developed (good moral character). If intelligence and good moral character are missing that civilization (country) will deteriorate.                
Sir Ronald Fisher born February 17, 1890 and died on July 29, 1962 was an English statistician, evolutionary biologist, and geneticist. Fisher believed that the genetic deterioration and decline of classical Greece and Rome came about partly due to deterioration of this kind. Brought on by the failure of patrician class to reproduce itself. With this failure by the patrician class (social elites) not reproducing itself, the serf peasant class (poor people) reproduced more children whom were uneducated, less intelligent, bad health, and of lower moral character. Sir Ronald Fisher was the professor of genetics at the University of Cambridge during the 1920’s and 1930’s.
Ancient Civilizations
Even in ancient civilizations like Egypt, Babylonia, Persia, India, Greece, Rome, Ancient Mexico and the American continent selective breeding was done with the aristocracy and social elite marrying people who were elite persons of society like themselves. And also, because the elite people of society were the ones who were more educated this helped them to transfer their money, power, positions, culture, and knowledge to their offspring (children). A lot depended on your birth back then. If you were born poor you died poor, there was little or no room to move up the social and economic ladder towards middle class or wealth. If you were born in the aristocracy or middle class then you remained apart of that class for the rest of your life unless some unfortunate event manifested that caused you to lose your status.  
Selective Breeding For Plants, Foods, And Animals

In The middle ages larger and stronger horses were breed for war, carring soldiers around, heavy armor, labor, and strong enough to carry the rider around without getting tired so easily. Different types of Dogs were bred for different functions sheep dog, retriever, hounds, the German shepherd, and other dog breeds. Race horses were breed for faster running speeds. Flowers and plants were breed for better quality. Fruits and vegetables were breed for higher quality. The modern strawberry that we see today was breed in a London garden during the first decade of the 19th century. A mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. So eugenic breeding for plants, animals, and foods has been around for hundreds of years and maybe even longer.
Slavery And Eugenics

Eugenics has been used during Slavery also. Throughout history were slavery has been practiced, certain slave owners encouraged their slaves to procreated with each other to produce more slaves. Slave owners liked strong slaves because they could work harder. Having many slaves also allowed more worked to get done.
Scientific research eugenics  
The scientific research program of eugenics demonstrated that intelligence and moral character are determining factors when it comes to cultural, economic, education, and scientific achievements, and these qualities tend to be transmitted in families generation to generation and, these qualities are partly determined genetically. In the early decades of the twentieth century none of these qualities were established as fact, but research in the social sciences and genetics have proven that they were true.      
Culture, environment, and childhood upbringing also play a role in determining how successful a person and country will be but genetics play a role too.
Political Eugenics
Eugenics has been used in a negative political way also. During the political reign of Adolf Hitler the leader of Germany during the Second World War (1939 – 1945) the Nazis used eugenics to eliminate and kill many Jews and other people they saw as undesirable and inferior. Approximately six million Jewish people killed by the Nazi Germans. The Nazis used gas oven chambers, Hangings, firing quads, etc to eliminate Jews and other people. This was eugenics being used in a bad way.
Also countries through out history have put people who were mentally ill or retarded in institutions for the rest of their lives because they were viewed as mentally ill. This also is a type of eugenics of purifying the countries of undesirables.
Another objective of eugenics was to influence and persuade the elite people of society to have more children by offering them financial incentives for having more children. This was called positive eugenics. This policy of offering finical incentives (money) to the elite to produce more children has not had very much success. Only in the country of Singapore did offering finical incentives to citizen to produce more children have some moderate success under the political leadership of former Prime Minister, Lee Kuan Yew was a keen eugenicist.     
Birth Control
Birth control also have are a part of eugenics. Birth control helps prevent the increase of unexpected pregnancies. At the same time many of the under class (poor) don’t use birth control, and therefore, they produce more children than the middle class and rich people (the elites of today). When birth control came along many of the elite people of society started using it, and the result is that they produce fewer children than the under class. Unless the under class poverty stricken people move up to the level of middle class a once prosperous country will deteriorate due to an increase in less educated, morally developed, and intelligent people.             

The Under Class
The under class are the poorest people society, and they have more criminals among them, highest pregnancy rate, less educated, chronically unemployed, violence, gangs, more welfare dependency, and live in most dangerous neighborhoods in the country. The underclass increased due to medical science finding cures for illnesses and diseases that long ago use to kill off many poor children and poor adults who were born into the under class. Another factor is that food is now more available due to technologically advances in agricultural department. Long ago draft horses, oxen and mules use to plow the field so the seeds could get planted and harvested in the summer. These animals could only do so much work before getting tired. Technology comes along and creates a Tractor. The tractor can plow a field faster and this allows farmers to plant more seeds and grow more crops to harvest, thus more food is produce and more people are fed. Now with more food this meant that more lives will be saved from starvation, and with more under class people now having access to better and more food they began to grow in numbers.
The key is to help the under class move up to the leave of middle class, and help them improve in education, moral character, intelligence (by educating them), and gain employment this will help society and the under class. The more under class people move up the economic ladder towards middle class the less crime, violence, gangs, out of wedlock births, and social ills.        
Middle Class

When middle class men and women marry each other they increase their chances of producing children, who are intelligent, good moral character, educated, and able to become economically stable in society. So you see eugenics in and of itself is not bad it is practiced by all countries and ethnic groups. Eugenics is a natural part of humanity; it is when it is being abused in a negative way that eugenics becomes a problem.
Eugenic and genetic science will increase in popularity and credibility the twenty first century, and some married couples will use eugenic and genetic science to have embryos implanted in the females to produce healthy and intelligent children. As stated eugenics is a natural part of humanity; it is when it is being abused in a negative way that eugenics becomes a problem that can lead to many innocent people being harmed.  

  1. Elle

    well done, I like the research

  2. Chance

    Thank you very much ELLE, that why I try to write essays that are interesting based upon what is happening and being discussed in society. I write about many topics too, and I have learned that it is good to give references and sources when I make a statement concerning certain topics.

    Thank you, Elle

  3. Juliana Hill

    Is the writer’s native language not English? This essay needs proofreading.

  4. Sarah

    This essay is so full of grammatical and factual errors that I don’t even know where to begin! Does anyone at all care about the accuracy of what is published on the website, or is it a simple free for all created by uninformed, idiotic individuals? “The children born of the social elite displayed the same qualities as their parents”? Children never consistently display the same qualities as their parents. If the “elite” were so far superior genetically then most of the royal families of Europe would not have hemophiliac children. Also, all in all the peasants were constitutionally stronger than their elite counterparts due to the fact they did NOT recieve the so called “medical attention”. They were not bleed by leeches, they lived a more active physical life, they did not consume high in sugar or fat diets. All in all the “under class” was definitely healthier all around then the “elite”. You need to check your facts, Chance, and not just repeat inaccurate assumptions that have been too long perpetuated.

  5. Chance

    @ Sarah,

    My response: You are just repeating what Juliana said — had she (or he) not said that you would not have either. You are inaccurate peasants were not as healthy, that’s one of the reasons they died sooner. They were more miserable. Please provide evidence that I am repeating inaccurate assumptions and provide evidence that the peasants were healthier and lived a better life.

  6. steveo

    German Shepherd not produced until around 1900, not midevil

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