Black Students Still Favor Lighter Skin, Study Finds

If given the opportunity would many blacks who are darker skin change their skin complexions to lighter skin colors.

 

Black Students Still Favor Lighter Skin, Study Finds

By Kai Beasley
Black College Wire

A majority of African American students polled at a Midwestern university say lighter complexions are more attractive than darker ones, according to a study conducted by researchers from two Louisiana schools.

The results, taken from a sample of 100 students, indicated that 96 percent of the men preferred a medium to light complexion in women while 70 percent of women found light skin of value in men.

This latest analysis of mating preferences explored a number of probable causes, all of which were rooted in the "colorism" prevalent from slavery through the 1960s, where lighter skin typically meant more privilege. The results were published in 2006 in the journal Race, Gender and Class.

Ashraf Esmail, a sociology and criminal justice professor at Delgado Community College in New Orleans, and Jas M. Sullivan, an assistant professor of political science and African American Studies at Louisiana State University, conducted the study.

According to Sullivan, its purpose was to test whether the color line continues to be a problem for the African American community.

"We know that there has been a preference for lighter skin in the past as a result of racism," said Sullivan, "but we really wanted to know whether or not that preference still exists in the 21st century."

The researchers asked 50 African American men and 50 African American women, all students at a large Midwestern university, to participate in semi-structured interviews. The university was not named in the study and Sullivan declined to provide the name for this story.

The students were all between 18 and 19 years old with complexions ranging from light to dark. Each subject was shown pictures of light, medium and dark-skinned men or women from fashion magazines and asked to rate the images based on attractiveness. In addition, each respondent was asked questions about their mating preferences in terms of skin color and about the value of skin color in the African American community.

One reason for the difference in answers between African American men and African American women, according to the authors, is that women tended to take more characteristics into account, such as lips, hair, eyes, height and style of dress, when determining a man’s attractiveness.

The interviews pointed to slavery and a social stigma attached to darker skin. "I think that people are valued for their light skin," said one student. "You can take this theory way back to the house slave mentality. I think a lot of people, because that was valued, were taught to value light skin. I think it is still an ongoing type of thing, and society really has not lost that altogether."

Both men and women cited media as a driving force in the preference for lighter skin.

"When you talk to a guy, he thinks that he wants a perfect girl he sees on the videos. Usually, the women portrayed in the videos are light-skinned and have long hair," said one respondent.

Still, another participant argued that African Americans don’t divide themselves based on light and dark complexions. Rather, the greater issue is color prejudice in the United States as a whole.

"Black people just see all black people as black no matter if they are light or dark. If you have any black in you, the black community considers you black."

Analysis for the Esmail-Sullivan study took place in 2000. Though it is the most recent on the subject, its results differ dramatically from an earlier study of African American college students conducted in 1997.

Louie E. Ross, then associate professor of sociology at Fayetteville State University in Fayetteville, N.C., interviewed 149 African American men and 236 African American women for his study, "Mate Selection Preferences among African American College Students." His research was conducted on the campuses of two historically black institutions in the Southeast; one public and one private.

The Ross study indicated that only 16.4 percent of women would prefer to date a person of a lighter complexion and 16.8 percent of women would want to marry a person with light skin. The study showed that 33.3 percent of men preferred to date a person of a lighter complexion and 38.3 would prefer lighter skin in a marriage partner.

Taken together, the research by Esmail and Sullivan and the earlier research by Ross indicate that colorism does have some impact on the African American community.

Esmail and Sullivan concluded that, "Further research in this area is needed. Clearly, colorism continues to plague the African-American community and we must first accept that claim and begin to find solutions that would ameliorate the superiority of light skin color to dark skin color."

Sullivan said there were plans to expand the research to other schools and to include historically black colleges. One of the issues he and Esmail plan to address is that colorism isn’t unique to the African American community, he said.

The New York Times reported on May 30 that the most popular cosmetic products among modern Indian women are those that lighten the skin. Didier Villanueva, country manager for L’Oreal India, said in the article that "fairness creams" account for half of India’s skin care market.

In the 2005 book "Fair Women, Dark Men: The Forgotten Roots of Color Prejudice," Canadian anthropologist Peter Frost reports that lighter women were preferred in medieval Japan, Aztec Mexico and Moorish Spain, even before there was significant contact with Western ideology.

Sullivan said, "What we sought to uncover in this study is whether or not the preference for lighter skin still exists" in the African American community. "Clearly you could make the connection between the preference for lighter skin and the past, but the deeper question, the question that needs much more observation is the why. Why does the black community self-select? Is this preference a dormant trait, is it something psychological, or is it just that light skin is all we see in the media and that affects our choices? These are the questions that still need answering."

Other studies published by Esmail and Sullivan include: "Black Candidates in Search of Electoral Support: Is Success Dependent on Residential Integration and Social Interaction?" (2003), "Interaction Patterns between Black and White College Students: For Better or Worse?" (2002), and "From Racial Uplift to Personal Economic Security: Declining Idealism in Black Education" (2002).
Kai Beasley is a May graduate of Emory University.


  1. Joseph

    Hmmm…To tell you the truth and it is should be of no concern of mine, I abhor it when black guys try to hog mixed chicks. I’m like, “Damn, you have plenty of black women dude, chill out.” Really it should not be a problem of mine, especially since these women do not find a problem with it. I mean, miscegenation is what got me here in the first place and I’m sort of opposed to it myself. 🙂 It is just one of those things that will annoy me for only the Creator knows how long. I’m not really racist, but if you ask me, I’d prefer endogomy. Just my opinion. Then what’s funny and probably a self-contradiction is that I do dig black chicks, or white chicks, so that would say I’m not really against interracial couplings if it benefits me. If I had to pick I’d probably stick with my own kind, but I just thought I’d let people see partially into the mind of a wierd Mulatto! I should also mention, I also find it abhorrent when a white guy likes and messes around with a mixed female as well, so it’s not just with the black guys doing it that bothers me. It is probably a backward attitude, but hey, that’s how I feel about it.

  2. Keita Fennick

    I know that this makes you very proud.

  3. Valerie

    Keita Fennick,

    I know I’m proud!

    😉

  4. yo

    IT seem dark men don`t value thire dark women as much as they do for other women who are not black.Most light skinned men value light skin women over any other women.They tin to be willing to be with someone that actual look like them than dark men do.

  5. Cee Cee

    Why would anyone want to conduct a study like this? We have bigger issues to tackle in the black community then worrying who’s dark or who’s light, who’s pretty and who’s not. BEAUTY IS IN THE EYES OF THE BEHOLDER.

  6. Joseph

    Cee Cee

    Studies are done on all types of things because all types of behaviors and relationships are interesting to human beings. I doubt a lion could give a rats ass about how lions of another pride conduct themselves. We are just inquisitive like that, so we give a rats ass how various lion prides behave.

  7. Jen

    Joseph,

    I agree. You are so right!

    http://mixedchicks.net

  8. jones

    I am a recent college graduate. The reason most blacks like lighter skinned people is because unfortunately light is considered successful.

  9. Joseph

    Jones

    That has some truth because the free people of color who were light-skinned back in the days were usually more successful than their black counterparts who lived in the worst of conditions. Not all of these mulattoes were successful of course, but they had a head start and were usually the leaders and were influencial in various things like the Harlem Renaissance.

  10. Melody

    I abhor it when black guys try to hog mixed chicks.
    Joseph, I’m waiting for black men to understand this point you made. Mulattos loves for black men to sex white women but want them to die after the seed has been planted. Do you understand the irony of your mentality? More of you should mix with your own women but you rely on black men to help boost your population. I also think you are afraid that mixing with black will taint you even more and move you further away from your ideal color. It’s dangerous for black folks who refuse to acknowledge the monster they created and it’s coming back to haunt the black race. You’re a great example to use which is why I present many of your quotes as proof of why both groups should part company. This way litigation against you will be much easier psychologically.

  11. Joseph

    Melody,

    Endogomy has been common among mulatto communities and they do not rely on black men to have sex with white females to increase their numbers. For example, there is Mulatto Hall around Philadeliphia. If you are not familiar than you should look it up.

    I don’t understand why you think the mulatto mentality is to move to an ideal color which is white. This is a totally false belief on your part. We are NOT white and we are NOT black. If that can permanate your thick skull or penetrate your clogged ears, or shine through your veiled vision than that would be hope against your ignorance.

  12. Ashley

    Joseph,

    Don’t waste your time on that fool, Melody. She thinks she’s an authority on Mulatto people. She’s just obsessed with us. That’s all.

    We Mulattos already know that we are NOT white and we know that we are NOT black. It’s blacks like her that just don’t get it.

    That’s why I cannot stand them now… it’s people like her.

  13. Melody

    Mulattos are NOT breeding with each other as much as they should. In fact, most of you believe whites are your superior which is why you don’t take a chance on your own people in case there’s too much black floating around in both your systems to produce the ideal “product”. You worship at the altar of whites and there’s no two ways about it. All the mulatto sports athletes marry or align themselves with white women to reach their goals.

    Ashley, you’re a non-entity who’s about to find yourself totally on the outs with blacks and whites if you want to know the truth. Most of you are the biggest losers especially on the job and everyone knows you are never to be trusted. I see whites sticking mulattos in their place all day long. One even told me she wanted to sue because a white manager made her clean tables in a conference room. I have a sneaky suspicion she felt he should have asked her black co-worker. You’re going to see more of them reminding mulattos where they stand once the split occurs and they know you have no back up. I wish you people would raise more of a ruckus to help spread the word before 2010. Seriously, I can’t wait!

  14. Ashley

    Melody,

    Please tighten your weave and calm down. Just so you know, my secretary is a black woman and I am younger than she is. Our mail room staff and cleaning staff are all black with the exception of a two Mexican women and, I believe, one Polish person (at least I think he’s Polish). But I digress… In any event, the staff who serve our food in the dining room are all black. The only negative comments that I, as well as my colleagues, hear are complaints about the quality of work and “shiftlessness” of the black staff who work for us. These black people are the most whinny, complaint-laden group that I have ever had the misfortune of encountering.

    So please don’t be hurt, you poor little dark misinformed nappy-headed picaninny. Believe this: You are loathed by more people than you’ll ever know.

    Won’t you please just go away? You are useless, uninteresting, and ugly. Although we have no interest in you at all, your continued interest in us is unwaivering. You are obsessed with us.

    (btw, the darkies breed like rabbits.)

  15. seb

    Ashley (or should i say Jesoph)

    You have to stop this childish behaviour. i this that Chance should stop you from visiting this site.

  16. Joseph

    Seb,

    I believe you should say Ashley unless she (or he, who knows) says that she can be called Joseph. I am mine own personality and Ashley and I are not one and the same person.

    It might be that you are over-analysing something to come to such conclusions or you are otherwise seeking to cause dissention in some way that is totally base and gross.

  17. Cee Cee

    Ashley are u Mulatto? because if you are, you wouldn’t exsist if it weren’t for the dark skinned, nappy head, picinnies you speak of genius. Have some respect for your ancestors.

  18. Melody

    Ashley, if anything you’re the secretary of some misguided black woman who hasn’t realized she has the enemy sitting right outside her office. But that’s what we get for accepting a people that was foisted upon us. I can tell how much it hurts mulattos when it dawns on them that it’s blacks who’re always extending helping hands in their direction. This is why it bothered me when Oprah included some of you in the festivities to honor black women last year. That was no place for you to be. Another thing…she has featured a couple of no-talent mulatta singers trying to boost their careers to no avail. Paula Abdul realized this treacherous nature when Corey Clark pulled that stunt on her so it’s clear everyone will soon know the deal from reading sites such as this. No, I’ve never worn weaves but some of you with male-pattern baldness are jumping on the bandwagon. That woman I mentioned who was ordered to clean the conference room has to style her hair in a “comb over” similar to what some white men sport when big spots are noticeable.

  19. seb

    To joseph…,

    Am sorry if conclusion is wrong. But i just can not understand how an ignorant comment from a comedian, could generate such hostility, by awful naming calling, which expresses just hatred for a particular race.

    As an outsider, it is difficult to believe that these expression of hatred for the black race, are infact coming from people whom are half black.

    There are interesting article on this site, such as the One on HIV, Cuban and so many others, but some of you choose to focus on the subject that matters least.

    We can do better than this

  20. Melody

    seb, up until the last three years I had no idea how rabidly racist mulattos could be. It’s our duty to make sure everyone is aware. Many of my friends of different races now view this site. I was told to go on mulattopeople.org for a pic of Chance. DAYUMMMMMM! Go check him out!!!!!!!

  21. Joseph

    Seb

    Sometimes there tend to be underlying things that fester which cause such things to happen. I’d myself be suprised if it were some spur of the moment response that someone has an abhorence of something unless it has a really nasty taste at first like some food that makes you immediately spit it out of your mouth. I’m not necessarily a black person hater, but I will say that as the years have progressed I’ve grown steadily tired and annoyed at black people. Don’t get me wrong, I sometimes generalize, cause I do have good friends who are black and as you mention I do have half of my family who are black as well.

  22. Melody

    Joseph, I mean this sincerely. I feel sorry for any black person who cares anything about you. I was mistaken when I thought it was mainly the mulatto children of black men who hated blacks, but now black women are producing them too…unfortunately. You’re a good example of why it’s foolish to worship at the altar of any “outside” group. Look where it got black folks. Glad I wasn’t raised like that. I bet those close to you licked your azz real good…now you shyt in their face. Great!

  23. Joseph

    Nobody has ever kissed my ass or got so kinky to “lick” my ass. The fault is only your own if you chose to worship at someone else’s alter under no duress.

  24. Honey II

    Joseph,

    I couldn’t agree with you more when you said, “I’m not necessarily a black person hater, but I will say that as the years have progressed I’ve grown steadily tired and annoyed at black people.”

    That is exactly how I feel.

    I don’t understand why people who are not even Mulatto think they know so much about us — what we think or how we feel, or what’s it’s like to be Mulatto.

    Take that “Melody” for example. What did she do, join a study group or something on Mulatto people? And more importantly, why is she so interested in us? It’s kinda creepy if you ask me!

    (btw, there is no way she is Mulatto.)

  25. Kim

    awwww Chance!

    You look like a cute sweet-cheeked golden cherub angel! So cute!

    (sorry if i’ve embarrassed you)

  26. seb

    You can either be part of the solution or be part of the problem. And from reading your comment Honey II, i think you are you are being the former.

    I was say to people that they shouldnt engage in conversion if they know what to say.

    Did anyone heard about what Alicia Keys said about the American Government, with respect to Gangsta rapping and the introduction drugs in Ghettoes across American. which encourages Black on Black killings. It all sound a little conspiritory to me. what do you guys think?

    One thing i can say which is true, is that the HIV/AIDS was created by the western communities, when trying a creat a vaccination for ebola virus. (if you would like to read more on this, please let me know)

  27. Melody

    Honey II, Rule Number 1…know your enemies. Any black person in 2008 would be ignorant not to see that we have actually given birth to the most heinous racists ever…YOU. Don’t blame me for getting ready!

  28. Melody

    Kim, beauty is “definitely” in the eye of the beholder if you can even remotely suggest that Chance is attractive. Talk about low rent!! I’m beginning to think it’s the bottom dwellers amongst you who are so angry. All he has is this belief that white admixture automatically gives him some vague advantage, and I’m sure any blacks around him smells that stank attitude knowing it has no merit in reality.

  29. jones

    Well its that and the perception on TV as well.

    Jones

    That has some truth because the free people of color who were light-skinned back in the days were usually more successful than their black counterparts who lived in the worst of conditions. Not all of these mulattoes were successful of course, but they had a head start and were usually the leaders and were influencial in various things like the Harlem Renaissance.

  30. seb

    Dear All,

    On my site, i like to encourage my bloggers to write about something they are passionate about and then we discuss it in a positive way, giving out constructive criticism. The subjects matters usually would varies from religion, sciences, media, popular culture, crime, race issue/relations, politics etc.

    The other day i recieve this article which i thought was beautifully written, with excellent points. PLease read this, it is particular relevent to the issues discussed on this site.

    PLEASE PLEASE READ. I LIKE YOUR INPUT

    WRITING FROM JOE OKIYE, (NIGERIAN AMERICAN)

    What happened to the days of black folks just being black? Nowadays everyone wants to be “mixed”. Is it more exotic? More sexy? More attractive?

    The stretch to be “mixed” allows people to remove themselves from the discriminatory world of blackness (Tiger Woods), or from the guilty world of whiteness (like First Lady Laura Bush who claims she is “mixed” because she is part Native American). If Tiger can identify as a “social construction combo”—well, then no one should call him a nigger… but they do. No one should make jokes about him being lynched… but they do. On the other side, for white Americans not identifying as white, they are trying to avoid the guilty world of American whiteness… they can’t be racist because Navajo is in their family!

    Everyone wants to be a tragic mulatto, not even knowing what it means. Mulatto is a combination of a donkey and a horse mating, which creates a mule—mules are sterile. The chart above gives a break down of race psychology, which was created by pseudo scientists to make as many intra-racial divisions within the black community (and many parts of the Caribbean where to this day certain groups proudly identify as mulatto—they usually have more money and power) as possible, obviously it still works today. These are legal terms that dealt with social control and the direction of labor in a slave society. I am mortified that some people are still stretching to use different (biracial, mixed), or the same versions (Creole), of these words.

    In America your experiences as a man, woman, black, white, hetero, homo, bi, trans, poor, middle class, etc. shapes who you are. Take me for example, my father is black American and my mother is white. I don’t identify as being biracial (I refuse to identify with a term that didn’t even exist when I was born), mixed (you “mix” a can of paint or a dog), or god forbid, mulatto (I’m not a combination of a donkey and a horse, nor am I a slave).

    I identify as black person with a white parent, like Bob Marley, Faith Evans and others. Even with Halle Berry’s makeup from Queen — I still could never pass for white. My experience is being a black man in America, who has endured incalculable amounts of racism. I was never looked at as a half and half slash. Moreover, once I understood what “race” was, I was never “confused” or even had racial identity issues—I knew I was black and so did my mother.

    I’ve had some folks argue: “Why don’t you embrace both sides?” How does one go about “embracing both sides?” Should I play my Courtney Love a lil’ louder? Read up more on Jessie Redmon-Fauset? Buy some Mariah Carey CDs? Is it really me “not embracing both sides” or is it me not identifying with what others want me to identify as?

    I’ve had some claim: “You’re not full black!” As if any black Americans are full black. There’s no such thing as any of us being “full” any race. African-American Studies 101—being “mixed” in consistent with the black experience. When New Yorkers tell me—you look Latin! I say, “No, it’s just that Latinos look black!” You know why? Caribbean Latinos are just as “mixed” as any other sector of the black community.

    I’ve heard this one many times from black folks: “Well, if this was slavery you would be in the house and I would be in the field!” This is important; the light-skinned house slave is a myth. House and field slaves rarely had to do with skin tone; it had to deal with the relationship with the master. If you were a good, obedient slave you could make it to the house. You didn’t get a pass simply because you were light-skinned. In my situation, my black, light-skinned azz would’ve never made it to the house because my mother is a white woman. I would’ve been lucky if I would’ve lived five minutes outside the coochie when they saw a brown baby pop out of a white woman. Here is a great link debunking the myth of privileged mulatto people in slavery.

    Many people want to turn me, and others of my back round, into the classic tragic mulatto. I’m not tragic with my racial identity. This isn’t a scene from Imitation of Life—my theme song isn’t Mahalia Jackson’s “Trouble of the World” with me running to a casket screaming “Mommaaaaaaaaa!” This isn’t an excerpt from Queen and I will not be hollering, “I’se nig’ra! I’se nig’ra!”

    Yes, there are people who are confused with their racial identity, however, I know people who have two black parents, but being that they were raised in a white environment they have no connection with black identity and experience “confusion.”

    People are criminalized when they trust their reality. When separate labels and regurgitated identities are cherry-picked, it only pacifies, miseducates and silences. It seems as if being black is a lost cause for many… maybe we all need a little taste of Jim Crow to get us back in order—isn’t that what Creoles needed?

  31. seb

    These are 3 responses I received in relation with the about writing;

    A, I am sometimes baffled by this “mixed” phenomenon. Blacks in the Americas (north, south, & carribean) are ALL mixed by default. So, like you said, you can be a black person with a white parent.

    I don’t understand why people don’t get this and get in an uproar when so-called “mixed” people identify as black. I’m a black woman, and if I have a child with a white man, the child will still be black. It’s such a non-issue.

    B, I am so proud to have you as a black brotha! you guys should take a look at some of those “mulatto” message boards, its just like the KKK. First they don’t know African American history and they claim that every light skin person is biracial, they were going on and on talking about how Tyra,Raven and Jada are biracial-no they just represent the wide spectrum of African Americans. And they hate Obama and Halle for calling themselves black. If they just defined what it means culturally to be biracial than maybe people will understand.They equate black w/ being poor and uneducated.
    Clay- shout out to your white mother who did not teach you to hate blackness.
    Apparently not all who engage in interracial relationships are as enlightened as people may think.

    C, I love you, darlin’! That was really heart-felt and I get it.

    My mom’s family is from Mexico, and my dad is white. I identify as latino with a white parent.

    The only time I feel like I don’t get grief is when I am in Mexico – because there I’m just another one in the spectrum from blonde hair and blue eyes to black hair and native american.

    What the hell is wrong with our society that people aren’t allowed to just be who they are? Issues of slavery and subjugation of all peoples of color in this country still prevail, and the damage works like rings in a pool from a rock thrown into the water.

    My people – at the hands of white men – had their land stolen, had blankets lined with smallpox gifted to them, had their women raped, had their homes destroyed, get spit at for speaking our language.

    Those of us proud of our heritage are labeled relative to an artificial ideal of racial “perfection” – if we deviate, we are cursed.

    Years and years go by, and the sh*t still goes on.

    E, I take issue with this statement: “I am mortified that some people are still stretching to use different (biracial, mixed), or the same versions (Creole), of these words.” If you, as a biracial man can proudly claim your blackness, why would you take issue with someone who chooses to identify themselves as biracial. You accuse people of being uncomfortable with the fact that you don’t identify yourself the way others want to identify you as, but you’re doing the same thing. And since you’re into Black American history, I suggest you read up on Antebellum Lousiana and the Creole culture. To equate a Creole with a person who resulted from the pairing of a black person and a white person is a gross oversimplication and straight-up denial of a rich, varied slice of history.

    F, First, this term “Black” and including all (mulatto, mixed, creole,etc) is an American social constructed concept that created in pure racism. So what that Tiger doesn’t identify himself as black. We as black folks got to get over this…

    I for one think Creole’s are just creole’s. They do have a seperate culture from the average american black population. Just like southern blacks have a different experience from blacks in the north. I think basically that’s what creole are saying.. We just have a different experience.

  32. Joseph

    “So, like you said, you can be a black person with a white parent.”

    That’s as stupid as one saying you can be a white person with a black parent.

    “I’m a black woman, and if I have a child with a white man, the child will still be black.”

    No, you will be black, your child will be mulatto and the child’s father will be white.

    “If they just defined what it means culturally to be biracial than maybe people will understand.”

    It is not a cultural identity, though the mulatto elite families in America have had a history of being community leaders and reformers. Whites have various cultures, blacks do, and mulattoes too.

    “I identify as latino with a white parent.”

    Whites, blacks, and mulattoes identify as latino, just as blacks, whites, and mulattoes identify as Americans.

    “To equate a Creole with a person who resulted from the pairing of a black person and a white person is a gross oversimplication and straight-up denial of a rich, varied slice of history.”

    True that, true that.

    “We just have a different experience.”

    We all do. I have a different experience from my very brothers.

  33. Joseph

    “What happened to the days of black folks just being black?”

    There was a time when blacks did not like the term “black” being used with regard to themselves. I guess it’s like mulattoes not having the term “yellow” used among themselves.

    “I don’t identify as being biracial”

    That’s fine, I know fat people who do not identify as being fat either.

  34. Chance

    Cultural experiences are apart of our reality, and many mixed race people live a cultural experience that includes the cultures they are mixed with. Example a light skin black (MGM) lives the life of a black person and white person at the same time. They are seen as black by whites and are seen as having characteristics of white people by blacks so this shows that they live the life of a white man and black person at the same time too some degree. These experiences make one see life, other people, and ethnic groups with a more open mind (for most mixed race people at least not all though).

  35. Vanessa

    Joseph,

    It is so refreshing to read your comments and responses. You just “break it down” to facts only.

    Example:

    Commenter: “I’m a black woman, and if I have a child with a white man, the child will still be black.”

    Joseph: No, you will be black, your child will be mulatto, and the child’s father will be white.

    Just the facts.
    Thanks, Joseph!

  36. affovabearo

    All greetings! I have fallen in love today:)))))
    I wish to shout about love to all world ! 🙂
    Love this magnificent feeling:)))))

  37. wintervssummer

    I very much love summer 🙂
    Someone very much loves winter 😦
    I Wish to know whom more 🙂
    For what you love winter?
    For what you love summer? Let’s argue 🙂

  38. Chance

    And, there are some who love all four seasons.




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