Archive for the ‘Black Culture (black people)’ Category

Hip Hop and Dark Skin

(rap music made dark skin black men popular throughout the world) 

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Black Women Married to White Men: Criticizing Black Men Married to White Women
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The new racial divide

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A White and Black Confrontation

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Chance writes: All skin tones represent various shades of beauty. There are beautiful people in all racial and ethnic groups. We should not devalue people because of their skin complexion being different from ours. Many people feel that they are lower because they skin complexions are darker. In Africa and even in other countries skin lightening cremes have become popular — but some people have experienced negative side effects from using these cremes. 

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How Much Does It Cost You in Wages if You “Sound Black?”

 

By Steven D. Levitt

Fascinating new research by my University of Chicago colleague, Jeffrey Grogger, compares the wages of people who “sound black” when they talk to those who do not.

His main finding: blacks who “sound black” earn salaries that are 10 percent lower than blacks who do not “sound black,” even after controlling for measures of intelligence, experience in the work force, and other factors that influence how much people earn. (For what it is worth, whites who “sound black” earn 6 percent lower than other whites.)

How does Grogger know who “sounds black?” As part of a large longitudinal study called the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, follow-up validation interviews were conducted over the phone and recorded.

Grogger was able to take these phone interviews, purge them of any identifying information, and then ask people to try to identify the voices as to whether the speaker was black or white. The listeners were pretty good at distinguishing race through voices: 98 percent of the time they got the gender of the speaker right, 84 percent of white speakers were correctly identified as white, and 77 percent of black speakers were correctly identified as black.

Grogger asked multiple listeners to rate each voice and assigned the voice either to a distinctly white or black category (if the listeners all tended to agree on the race), or an indistinct category if there was disagreement.

Then he put this measure of whether a voice sounded black into a regression (the standard statistical tool that economists use for estimating things), and came up with the finding that blacks who “sound black” earn almost 10 percent less, even after taking into account other factors that could influence earnings. One piece of interesting good news is that blacks who do not “sound black” earn essentially the same as whites.

(It turns out you don’t want to sound southern, either. Although pretty imprecisely estimated, it is almost as bad for your wages to sound southern as it is to sound black, even controlling for whether you live in the south.)

So what does this all mean?

The first question to ask is whether the impact of speech on wages is a causal one. It is possible that there are many other characteristics that differ between blacks who do or do not “sound black” that Grogger cannot control for in his regressions. It does seem likely that the biases at work would make his estimate an upper bound. (Although it should also be noted that his estimates are for young people, and the importance of speech may become important with age, in which case his results might underestimate the long-run effects.)

If one believes Grogger’s effects are causal, then investing in the ability to not “sound black” looks to have a huge return — roughly of the same magnitude as getting one more year of schooling.

Of course, there is the issue of one’s identity. There may be personal costs associated with being black and not sounding black. But these costs would have to be pretty large. (When I have Asian Ph.D. students go on the job market in the United States, I tell them that I think there is rampant discrimination against non-English speakers and encourage them to adopt Americanized first names for the job market. Very few of my students choose to do so — either a testimony to the identity cost of pretending to be someone you aren’t, or possibly their lack of faith in my assessment of the amount of discrimination.)

I was talking with one of my colleagues about this study. He thinks it will be a very important and influential one.

My response, “Tru dat.”

 

Note: Makes you wonder why many whites are still living in Zimbabwe — when they know that it is dangerous for them. At the sametime when whites were in power, and controlled the country, they did the same thing to blacks. They murdered them, took black owned tribal lands, racially discriminated against blacks, beat them, etc etc. This is bad karma that has come home against whites. Even many innocent whites — suffer for the evil of their fellow whites.

William Rogers and his wife, Annette


Zimbabwe crisis: White Farming Couple Beaten And Kicked Off Land

David Blair, London Telegraph, June 4, 2008

A white farming couple was assaulted, whipped and shot at after they were given two minutes to leave their property in Zimbabwe.

William Rogers and his wife, Annette, were threatened by three Robert Mugabe supporters, who told them: “We are like hungry lions.”

Dozens of Zimbabwe’s last white farmers have suffered similar ordeals since Mr Mugabe lost the presidential election’s first round in March. Scores of black opposition supporters have been murdered and thousands beaten, abducted or tortured.

After defying the two-minute warning to leave, Mr and Mrs Rogers took refuge in their home on Chigwell farm. A gang of a dozen men soon gathered outside.

“They started smashing windows and the front door was smashed open,” said Mr Rogers. One of the men produced a gun and opened fire. “He fired a shot directly at us which went just over my head and close to my wife’s head,” said Mr Rogers. “He obviously intended to kill us.”

The couple retreated upstairs and listened, terrified, as the gang began heaping together a fire in their living room, using the wreckage of their back door.

“We thought we would be burnt alive, which is when I said that we would come out,” said Mr Rogers. He grabbed a shotgun and led his wife downstairs. The ringleader ordered him to hand over his weapon. Men seized Mrs Rogers and grabbed her by the throat.

Then the mob set upon both the farmer and his wife with sticks and pipes. “They dragged my wife outside and they were trying to strangle her,” said Mr Rogers. “She managed to bite the hand of the man who was grabbing her round the throat.

“He started to beat her. At one time, there were at least four men beating and kicking her.”

Bruised and bleeding, the couple were tied up and hurled into the back of a pickup. Finally, at least five hours after the first calls for help, the local police responded. Four armed officers freed Mr and Mrs Rogers, who were taken to Harare, the capital, for emergency treatment. They are now recovering.

Who Has It Harder, Light Skin Blacks Or Dark Skin Blacks?

(Does beautiful black have it harder or does pretty yellow suffer more?)

Dark skin blacks claim to have it harder than light skin blacks, and many members of other racial groups agree with dark skin blacks. Now light skin blacks are made up of multigenerational mixed people, biracials, and people who are born to one biracial parent and one monoracial parent.

I disagree that dark skin suffer worse. Dark skin blacks have things already layed out for them in America regarding how they will be seen, and treated based upon their phenotypes (physical appearance).

Dark skin blacks also definitely can call the black race their home. A light skin black has it harder than a dark skin black. And, there are many reasons why, a light skin black has it harder.

Reasons Why Light skin Blacks have it Harder

In America and certain other English speaking countries, if you are mixed with black, and your black ancestry is visible too some degree — then you are classified black regardless of your phenotype.

Therefore, you will be treated like a black person who is dark skin, meaning you will experience racism, hate crimes, employment discrimination, given all of the negative labels that dark skin blacks have, seen as crime prone, and a person to be avoided at all cost.

B You will experience rejection from certain whites and rejection, from certain members of other ethnic groups — because they view you as a mixed race person, who is mixed with black, and thus a trouble maker filled with black pathologies.

C You will be mistreated certain by whites and certain members of other ethnic groups because you are mixed with black, and you will be mistreated by blacks because when blacks look at you they can tell you are mixed with white because you have light skin.

Therefore, you catch hell from blacks, whites, and other ethnicities.

D You will have to be alert when dark skin and certain caramel brown skin blacks are around — because they will do things to make you miserable. If dark skin blacks are in a position of authority, some of them will try to make the light skin person miserable by always being rude, harassing, or nit picking at everything they do. This applies to employment, apartment managers, supervisors, working at private organizations, government jobs, law enforcement, city jobs, jobs in general, and any type of position where a dark skin black is in a position of power and authority.

E Light skin blacks experience all of the unpleasant things that happen to dark skin blacks because of the one drop rule (ODR) that says if you have black ancestry in America then you are black. This One drop rule opens multigenerational mix (light skin blacks), Biracials, and people who are born to one biracial parent and one monoracial parent up to racism that emanates from blacks, whites, and other ethnic groups.

F Mixed race people are judged by the same standards, that whites view dark skin blacks. This means that if whites view dark skin blacks as lazy, difficult to get along with, crime prone, violent, negative, horrible employees, etc then mixed race people who are mixed with black are viewed to a major degree the same way.

G Even though most of the horrible reputations and stereotypes about the black race, are based upon whites observations of dark skin blacks and certain caramel brown skin blacks — those mixed race light skin blacks are judged also by these same reputations and stereotypes.

Being judged by these reputations and stereotypes causes problems for mixed race people.

H Dark skin blacks can say what ever they want because they are phenotypically official members of the black race. Mixed race light skin blacks have to be careful of what they say when among dark skin blacks. Example a dark skin black guy can see another dark skin black guy, and say what’s up black, and this is alright. Now a light skin black guy has to be careful about saying what’s up black — because the dark skin black guy may think that the light skin guy is making fun of his dark skin complexion.

I Dark skin blacks phenotypically have their race and culture; light skin blacks don’t truly phenotypically (physical appearance) have a race. They are added to the black race because of the one drop blood rule.

J Because light skin blacks don’t have a separate ethnic category called mixed race or some category that describes their physical appearance, this puts them at the mercy of dark skin blacks, whites, and other ethnic groups.

You will follow the law of the majority. Dark skin blacks and caramel brown skin blacks are the majority, so therefore, light skin blacks who have skin complexions that are Caramel beige yellow, yellow caramel, yellowish brown, yellowish red, tan, high yellow or whitish red (red bone), beige, whitish, and white skin are not the majority, and therefore have to submit to the rule of cultural conduct that dark skin and caramel brown skin blacks create.

So as we can see that it is, harder being a light skin black than a dark skin black. Caramel brown skin blacks have it the easiest because dark skin blacks in general don’t bother them because they are in the middle of dark skin and light skin, and this makes them neutral. Dark skin blacks also view caramel skin blacks as simply blacks who have some mixture but still closer to black. Wherefore, blacks who are Caramel beige yellow, yellow caramel, yellowish brown, yellowish red, tan, high yellow or whitish red (red bone), beige, whitish, and white skin are seen by dark skin blacks as being a mixed race type of people who are mixed with black but are not truly bonafide members of the black race.

Yes there are some isolated situations, where a light skin black can and do receive some benefits or privilege over dark skin blacks. But these few privileges these isolated privileges and benefits do not outweigh the difficulties, racism, mistreatment, stress, etc that light skin blacks receive because they are seen as black.

Many caramel brown skin blacks are mixed race also, but my focus was on mixed race people who are lighter than caramel brown skin — because it is these people, that dark skin blacks consider more mixed race looking.

If your physical appearance is Caramel beige yellow, yellow caramel, yellowish brown, yellowish red, tan, high yellow or whitish red (red bone), beige, whitish, and white skin then you are lighter than caramel brown skin and dark skin blacks. And, because of this, dark skin blacks see you as more of a mixed race type people.

Yes dark skin blacks (beautiful black) have it hard, but pretty yellow has it harder.

Black Teens Feel the Chill of ‘Bilingual Preferred’    
Wednesday, 30 April 2008
INLAND EMPIRE

 

By Chris Levister

‘Don’t speak Spanish…can’t get the job?’

When San Bernardino High School teens Jazanique Jackson, Ashanae Brown and Kimyen Hawkins decided they wanted to work this summer, they left nothing to chance.

They knew the rules: plan ahead; role play; be positive; adapt; relate and encourage.

So when they hit the streets to start their summer job search they were prepared for virtually every eventuality except one.

¿No habla ingles?  Can’t speak Spanish.

"We were shocked. We applied at places like McDonalds, Burger King and Jack in the Box. We went to shoe stores, pizza parlors and convenience stores. The workers were overwhelmingly Spanish speaking. Pretty much they always ask us, ‘Do you speak Spanish?’ They said we prefer bilingual," says Jazanique. And, as an American who only speaks English, her answer leaves her without the job.

"It’s hard when you can’t even get an interview because you don’t speak Spanish," said Jazanique.

For Jazanique, Ashanae and Kimyen the job hunting experience is both frustrating and sobering. The unemployment rate among African-American teens is shockingly six times the national rate. This according to the U.S. Department of Labor translates into approximately 296,000 African-American teenagers actively seeking employment who are finding it difficult to secure a job.     

It does seem strange to Kimyen who grew up believing jobs are plentiful if you’re flexible, motivated and willing to work hard.

"It’s like three strikes…Black, young and non-Spanish speaking. I’m mad but there is nothing I can do about it. It’s not fair."

Cashier-customer exchanges at four national fast food restaurants located at the busy intersection of Mt. Vernon and Washington Streets in Colton bore out many of the teen’s frustrations.
Image
San Bernardino High School teens Jazanique Jackson, Ashanae Brown And Kimyen Hawkins are feeling the chill from employers who perfer bilingual workers.

Cashier:  "Welcome to McDonalds, can I take your order?"

Customer in Spanish: "Dame dos hamburgesas con queso, un Big Mac, dos papitas fritas y tres sodas."  – Translation: "Give me two cheeseburgers, one Big Mac, two fries, three Cokes."

Cashier in Spanish: "¿Grandes o chicas?" – Translation: small or large fries?

Customer in Spanish: "Grande" – Translation: Large

Cashier in Spanish: "¿Algo Mas? –  Translation:  Anything else?

Customer in Spanish: "¿Puedo usar mi tarjeta?" Translation: Can I use my debit?

Cashier in Spanish: "Si" – Translation: yes

Across the street at the Jack in the Box, the buzz among the all Latino staff was a mix of English and Spanish.

"Necesito mas popotes" That was Maggie Castro, on-duty manager, Saturday, calling for a replenishment of straws in the customer self service bins. "Keep this area clean," said Castro wiping the countertop.

"That’s what we’re up against. It’s a form of discrimination," says Jazanique.

And it brings up the question: is it legal, in America, to require an American citizen to speak a foreign language to get certain jobs?

McDonald’s for example employs 465,000 workers worldwide serving more than 26 million customers daily. More than 80 percent of its 13,700 U.S. restaurants are independently owned and operated by local franchisees. The food service powerhouse’s hiring culture is nothing less than emphatic about its commitment to equal opportunity employment.

The chain has been recognized for it’s commitment to diversity by Fortune Magazine, Hispanic Magazine and lauded by Black Enterprise Magazine as one of the 30 Best Companies for Diversity.

A statement on the corporation’s website says: "McDonalds is committed to recognizing the talents and job performance of all employees and values the contributions that come from people with different backgrounds and perspectives. We believe in developing and maintaining a diverse workforce that will strengthen the McDonald’s system."

"I don’t think its discrimination. It’s more about catering to the customers who come through the door," says Elva Gomez a former manager for Del Taco national food chain.

"Of course, you don’t have to learn to speak Spanish to get a job in a fast food restaurant, but in certain parts of the country, like San Bernardino, where you’ve got the impact of immigration, it certainly limits your chances of getting the job you want," said Gomez.

"You better believe Black teens looking for summer jobs are feeling the impact of immigration," said Gomez. It’s worrisome because Blacks are suffering more from the invasion than whites because they (generally) have fewer resources with which to run away from immigration."

"It’s a very stressful and difficult dilemma. Sometimes you feel like you’re straddling two nations, on one hand you strive for diversity, on the other you are forced to hire people who are best equipped to serve your core customer base. Sometimes that boils down to bilingual preferred," says fast food manager Kevin Ellis who is biracial (Latino/Black) speaks some Spanish and does everything from hire workers to taking customer’s orders, cooking food, assembling sandwiches and handing orders to customers.

"I hate to sound so cynical," but the American workplace is turning Spanish very fast. That requires you to learn another language in high school. That’s reality." said Ellis.

For Jazanique, Ashanae and Kimyen that reality comes as more teens prepare to seek summer jobs. Citing rising gasoline and food prices among other things, Junior Achievement released the results of an annual survey showing a 22% increase in the number of teens who want to work this summer, says a spokesperson for the nonprofit.  

"The job chill is not limited to the fast food industry," insists Miki Nelson who had to apply at 19 different businesses before he got a summer job stocking books at a national retailer.

"In most cases I was asked. ‘Do you speak Spanish’? We are being pushed out of minimum wage jobs on every front. Employers are under intense pressure to capture every dollar that comes in the door. Customers want cheap, fast, hassle free everything. What happens to Black inner city kids – whether they get summer jobs or not – is not on their radar," said Nelson.

 "When we look in the want ads for jobs we qualify for, they say ‘Bilingual, bilingual, bilingual preferred’!" said Nelson. Which he and other Black teens have learned translates into, "If you aren’t bilingual, don’t bother applying."

In America it has been noticed by many blacks, that whites often can get away with imitating black culture and not be treated as lower class people. Often whites who play hip hop rap music loud in their cars — are not harassed by the police, and seen as low class type people by other whites and cops.

When a black person sees a white person playing rap music loud in his or her car – the black person realizes, that if they did the samething in a predominately white neighborhood, and the police saw them – they stand a good chance of being pulled over and questioned by the cops.

Many white kids, teenagers, and young adults were baggy clothes, which is a fashion that was started by blacks but these whites are not seen as low class criminals. Often when blacks wear the baggy clothes style they are seen as criminals, gangsters, low class, and trouble makers.

It has to be emotionally and mentally painful, to see others imitate your culture, and not have to worry about the deadly consequences. Yet when some blacks assimilate white culture into their character they are seen by some blacks as not black enough, sell outs, and wanna be (want to be) whites.

Even when other non white ethnic groups imitate urban black culture they are not seen as low class as blacks. They are seen as higher then blacks but lower than whites.

A white person who imitates black culture is seen as non racist by blacks and whites often.

A white man leaves his wife and two kids so he can be with another man is often given sympathy by whites and some blacks. They say he has finally found himself and is a liberated man. He finally came to terms that he was gay (homosexual).

A black man does the samething he is villainized as worthless and a demonic undercover bisexual.

White man shows up to a social event with a tuxedo and tennis shoes on and this is acceptable. A black man does the samething many African Americans (blacks) look at him like he must have forgot to change shoes. Yet both blacks and whites in general will give a white man a pass when he does this.

Often the news media has shown white police officers all over the country on audio video camera pulling over drunken white men — who were driving, and after a few questions the driver admits he is drunk and the officer tells him to get in his car and go home.

Many times blacks who drink and drive are arrested, the majority of them never get a free pass from police to drive themselves home.

A lot of these social differences have their origins in how the black and white racial groups are viewed. Whites as a collective are viewed as more civilized and blacks the exact opposite. These views and stereotypes play out in society, and encompass all spheres of American society.

So you must be aware of how each ethnic group is viewed in society so you will know how to maneuver and avoid certain potentially dangerous pitfalls.

Saturday April 26, 2008

Observations of Blacks, and Illegal immigrants

You are a black man walking in a predominantly white neighborhood at 10:30 pm at night. A police car pulls up besides you and two officers speak with you. One ask what are you doing here. You ay you are just causal walking headed home. The Office asks do you live in this neighborhood? And you say no.

The officer says leave this neighborhood now. So you continue walking and you leave after all you where just passing through anyway. A homeless man walking in the same neighborhood and the same police officers see him they don’t bother him because he looks dirty and homeless. They view him as non threatening.

An illegal immigrant from Mexico or south & Central America walks around in various American towns and cities — and the police know this, but as long as they have not broken the laws they let them walk around.  A black man has a greater chance of being harassed by the police for walking in a white neighborhood than an illegal Latino immigrant. Even non black immigrants from other ethnic groups get harassed less than blacks.

So if black life is so devalued in its own county — and an illegal immigrant can walk freely on average what does that say about America? A group of Latino day labors can stand in front of a warehouse store or on a street corner in a middle class white neighborhood — and the majority of the times the police and people don’t bother or force them to leave. Even though the people dislike having them in their neighborhoods and customers want them gone from the store entrance.

If a group of black Americans all over the country did this in the average white neighborhood they would be asked to leave and the police would force them to leave. The black men were born here and the illegal immigrants were not. This proves that black Americans are viewed as the lower class ethnic group in America.

So blacks under these conditions where their own country has made them lower are not obligated to do certain things for America if they don’t want to. White America has made sure that even immigrants view blacks as the lower ethnic group, and this causes racial tensions between immigrants and blacks.   

If you have been sold out too some degree by your own country then to that degree you are not obligated to that country.

NYPD Officers acquitted In The Killing Of Sean Bell
 
 
  
 
The three New York police officers who shot and killed Sean Bell were acquitted Friday, April 25,Detective Gescard Isnora 2007. Police Officers detective Gescard Isnora age 29, is black, detective Marc Cooper is black, and detective Michael Oliver age 36, is white. The three officers were working undercover vice at a night club when they confronted Sean Bell, and his two friends in the parking lot while Bell and his friends sat in the car getting ready to leave.

Isnora and Oliver are charged with manslaughter, felony assault and reckless endangerment. Cooper is charged with reckless endangerment.

It was officer Gescard Isnora who yelled he’s (Sean Bell) got a gun and then all the officers started firing. I really do feel that Isnora did not see a gun and made up this false accusation. I have noticed in the news/media other black police officers and black security guards do the same thing and shoot blacks. This gives a strong impression that black go out of their way to harm blacks for enjoyment and entertainment purposes.

You see this mentality all over America in all job markets and neighborhoods where blacks live. Gescard Isnora is no different. He is just like many blacks who go out of their way to inflict physical pain on blacks. Notice when often if it is a white person these types’ of blacks all of a sudden don’t act this way. They follow most of the time when dealing with whites’ proper procedure. This proves they go out of their way to harm blacks.

Whites are the majority and can still inflict punishment on them, and they know it. Gescard Isnora only adds fuel to the fire — that there may be some genetic meaning inherited these tribal warrior genes from his African ancestors — that says when you see a black person they are from another tribe so fight them, cultural, self hate, angry at white people but take your frustrations out on blacks because they are lesser threatening, etc that motivates his and other black peoples negative behavior towards blacks.

 
NYPD officers cleared in killing; rights leaders want probe
 
By TOM HAYS, Associated Press Writer Fri Apr 25, 7:11 PM ET

 

NEW YORK – Civil rights leaders demanded a federal investigation and vowed to march through the streets in protest after three police officers were cleared of all charges Friday in the killing of an unarmed man cut down in a hail of 50 bullets on his wedding day. Detective Michael Oliver

 

 
The verdict by Justice Arthur Cooperman elicited gasps as well as tears of joy and sorrow. Detective Michael Oliver, who fired 31 of the shots, wept at the defense table, while the mother of victim Sean Bell cried in the packed

 

courtroom. Shouts of "Murderers! Murderers!" and "KKK!" rang out on the courthouse steps.

Bell, a 23-year-old black man, was killed outside a seedy strip club in Queens in 2006 as he was leaving his bachelor party with two friends. The officers — undercover detectives who were investigating reports of prostitution at the club — said they thought one of the men had a gun.

 

The slaying heightened tensions in the city and stoked long-standing allegations of racism and excessive use of force on the part of New York City‘s police, even though two of the officers charged are black.
 

 
In announcing his verdict in the non-jury trial, the judge said that the inconsistent testimony, courtroom demeanor and rap sheets of the prosecution witnesses — mainly Bell’s friends — "had the effect of eviscerating" their credibility.
 
"At times, the testimony just didn’t make sense," the judge said.
Police had assigned extra officers to the courthouse and had helicopters in the air to help deal with any unrest. But within an hour, the angry, weeping crowd of about 200 people outside the courthouse had scattered, and despite a few scuffles, no arrests were made.
 
Oliver and Gescard Isnora were acquitted of charges that included manslaughter, assault and reckless endangerment. The third officer, Marc Cooper, faced lesser charges.
 

Detective Marc Cooper
The verdict does not entirely resolve issues surrounding the case.
 
After the verdict, the U.S. attorney’s office said it will look into the case and "take appropriate action if the evidence indicates a prosecutable violation of federal criminal civil rights statutes."
 
In addition, relatives of the victims have sued the city, and those cases could either go to trial or be settled out of court with the potential for multimillion-dollar payouts.
 
Also, the officers, who had been on paid leave, still face possible departmental charges that could result in their firing. While the judge found that the officers’ behavior was not criminal, he added, "Questions of carelessness and incompetence must be left to other forums."
 
The officers appeared somber later at a news conference. Each called the verdict fair. One apologized.
 
"I’d like to say sorry to the Bell family for the tragedy," Cooper said.
 
The Rev. Al Sharpton, who represents Bell’s family, demanded a federal investigation.
 
"This verdict is one round down, but the fight is far from over," the civil rights leader said on his radio show. He said he is organizing "economic withdrawal" and "civil disobedience" that could involve going to jail and marching on Wall Street, at the judge’s house and at police headquarters.
 
"We are going to close the city down in a nonviolent, effective way," Sharpton said. "We’re going to hit the pocketbooks. We’re going to let you know that we are not going to be in any way diverted from exercising our civil rights."
 
Mayor Michael Bloomberg said: "We don’t expect any violence, nor is there any place for it."
 
The officers had complained that pretrial publicity had unfairly painted them as cold-blooded killers. They opted to have the judge instead of a jury decide the case, a strategy that appeared to pay off.
 
District Attorney Richard Brown said that despite losing the case, prosecutors had "revealed significant deficiencies" in police tactics that need "prompt and serious attention."
 
The case brought back painful memories of other New York police shootings, such as the 1999 killing of Amadou Diallo, an African immigrant who was gunned down in a barrage of 41 bullets by police officers who mistook his wallet for a gun. The acquittal of the officers in that case led to days of protests, with hundreds arrested.
 
"An ugly pattern is emerging in New York," the Rev. Jesse Jackson said in Chicago after Friday’s verdict. "This was a massacre. This was not a shootout. And the U.S. attorney general must give America the assurance that we all have equal protection under the law,"
 
The nearly two-month trial was marked by deeply divergent accounts of the night.
 
The defense painted the victims as drunken thugs who the officers believed were armed and dangerous. Prosecutors sought to convince the judge that the victims had been minding their own business, and that the officers were inept, trigger-happy cowboys.
 
Bell’s companions — Trent Benefield and Joseph Guzman — were both wounded; Guzman still has four bullets lodged in his body. Both testified. Guzman, a burly ex-convict, grew combative during cross-examination, and said of Isnora: "This dude is shooting like he’s crazy, like he’s out of his mind."
 
None of the officers took the stand. Instead, the judge heard transcripts of the officers telling a grand jury that they believed they had good reason to use deadly force.
 
The officers said that as the club closed around 4 a.m., they heard Guzman say, "Yo, go get my gun" — something Bell’s friends denied.
 
Isnora claimed that after he warned the men to halt, Bell pulled away in his car, bumped him and rammed an unmarked police van that converged on the scene. The detective also said Guzman made a sudden move as if he were reaching for a gun.
 
Benefield and Guzman testified that there were no orders from the police.
 
With tires screeching, glass breaking and bullets flying, the officers said they believed they were the ones under fire. Oliver responded by emptying his semiautomatic pistol, reloading, and emptying it again. Isnora fired 11 rounds, and Cooper four. Two other officers who fired weren’t charged.
 
When the smoke had cleared, there was no weapon inside Bell’s blood-splattered car.