Archive for the ‘History’ Category

Days of Obligation

The new future mixed race people
 

Due to whites forcing Mixed race (mulattoes) to live under the ODR and thus causing a lot of suffering for mixed race people. The question is this, are mixed race people who have some recent black ancestry obligated to help black and white America progress in the best interest of blacks and whites?

 

Are mixed race people obligated to try to help white America stop illegal Latino immigration that threatens to make white 70 years down the road no longer the majority but a minority. When whites forced mulattoes to self identify as black only this was an act of treachery. This treachery caused a lot of emotional, psychic, and mental pain and stress for the mulattoes.

 

So now with the ghost of the mulattoes reawakened through a new influx biracials who reject the one drop rule (ODR). A new destiny and divine providence is rapidly manifesting, and this destiny will guarantee that the ODR will be removed before 2070 A.D. no doubt.

 

The multiracial movement is growing in America and the U.K. (England) and is gaining strong support. Therefore, the mixed race people are not obligated as a collective to keep white and black America in power. Whites sold out the mulattoes, and tried to eliminate their cultural and ethnic identity — by forcing them to call themselves black only. So then mulattoes are not obligated to whites.

 

Whites betrayed mulattoes and the mulattoes are mixed heavily with white. If white men did not want to take care of the mulatto children that they created, then they should not have helped themselves sexually to black slave women.

 

The problem they sought to eliminate through forcing mulattoes to claim black, was the problem they created by sexually enjoying themselves.

 

There were some good white men who took care of their mixed race children they had with black slave women. Some white men even lived with black women as a type of common law wife, and had biracial children by these women.

 

They were good fathers. Black Americans gained the most from the treachery because it sent the intelligent educated mulattoes into their race and these mulattoes helped raise the black race up intellectually, educationally, politically, socially, etc.

 

So basically whites owe compensation to the mixed race people who have phenotypes that are mixed race. They can pay this compensation by helping the multiracial movement, donating money to mixed race organizations, getting mulatto history set strait by writing books that explain the accomplishments of certain mulattoes whose accomplishments are currently labeled black accomplishments, help finance a museums and centers that teach about mixed race history in America, and many more things they can do.

 

Blacks owe mulattoes too. Blacks gained the most from mulattoes living among them. Blacks can do the same thing that whites can do to help the mulatto cause, and blacks can also do a big service by allowing mulattoes claim mixed race without telling them no your are just black.

 

The MGM (multi generational mix or multi generational mulattoes) are the descendants of the old mulattoes who were forced to identify black. The MGM can do a great service by helping and working with biracials to further the mixed race multiracial movement and cause. The MGM should study mulatto history in America and be proud that they descend from such a great people.

 

The days of obligation are not to black and white America particularly but an obligation to the building of the new mixed race America that will come in the year 2065.

 

After 2065 the black, white, and mixed race people that where born in the 1970s, 1980, and 1990s will be old in age. The youngest among them will be 65 years old. Those born after 1999 where born the 21st century.

The 21st century is the century of the mixed race people and mixed race consciousness and love of humanity.

 

Those people born in the1990s meaning the last decade of the 20th century have more members among them — whom are more open minded about allowing a mixed race person to call themselves mixed race.

 

In 1865, in 1965 the civil right movement was a success black Americans, mixed race, and all non whites were given their civil rights thanks to blacks and hard working mulattoes who self identified as black. Now from 1965 to the year 2065 the ODR will end. A new culture will arise. This new culture will be the result of all the hard work educationally and culturally that mixed race people in the multiracial movement and their sympathizers will help usher in.

 

Days of obligation are to the new people of the future the mixed race people.

 

Latinos will also be apart of the new America because they are already mixed. They will contribute to the pull the genetic mixing of America. The white and black American system of culture and racial classifications are outdated, and will not be compatible with the new mixed race culture. The general America culture and all monoracial cultures from all ethnic groups will be outdated. They will be forced to acknowledge the new mixed race American culture, and make their cultures compatible with the new general mixed race American culture of the future.

 

White American culture is the dominate culture of America currently even though it is loosing out and gradually deteriorating. In the future the mixed race culture will be what white American culture was in dominance. All people will have to cater too some degree to the mixed race America culture of the future because it will be the most popular, dominant, and admired.

 

After 2065 the mixed race culture will grow in America and become extremely powerful and admired. Countries all around the world will see an increase in mixed people and culture among their citizens.

 

Obligation means the act of binding oneself by a social, legal, or moral tie.

These are the Days of Obligation.

An unusual blend of cultures: Mexican and black

 

 

 

Page 1

Immigrants from Costa Chica share an ancient ethnic heritage and culture that few outsiders know about.
By John L. Mitchell, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer
Sunday April 13, 2008

Maribel Silva, Francisca Dominguez and Vanessa Zorrosa support the Costa Chica soccer team from Pasadena, made up mostly of Mexicans with cultural and racial histories going back hundreds of years to the Spanish conquistadors and the African slave trade.
 
 
 
 
Every Sunday, on a chewed-up soccer field in Pasadena, Mexican immigrants play a game they learned barefoot in the dusty pueblos along a remote stretch of the Pacific coast.

The Costa Chica team — named for the picturesque coastline south of Acapulco — has cut a winning path through the heart of an immigrant-dominated league in Pasadena, capturing three championships in two years.

 

Its players are agile and swift. And they’ve quickly earned the respect and admiration of opponents who at first didn’t know what to make of their talented adversaries.

"Are you really Mexican?" they are sometimes asked.

Their skin is dark. They look Honduran, Dominican or even African American.

Black Mexicans?

"No existe!"

 

But Costa Chicans — many dark in complexion with puchunco (curly or kinky) hair — are Mexicans with cultural and racial histories going back hundreds of years to the Spanish conquistadors and the African slave trade.

As part of the massive wave of Mexican immigrants who began fleeing the economic hardships of their homeland in the 1980s, black Mexicans from the coast settled in communities throughout the United States, in Winston Salem, N.C., Joliet, Ill., and Salt Lake City, among other places.

Some 300 Costa Chicans live in Pasadena, and thousands more can be found in San Bernardino, South Los Angeles, San Juan Capistrano and Santa Ana, all enclaves characterized by close family and community ties.

The story of their journey and survival includes familiar subplots: immigrant families — some here legally, some not — struggling to adjust to a new country, establish livelihoods and avoid the perils of urban life. And for Costa Chicans, the unique cultural and racial identities add another layer of complexity as they try to make their way in a new land.

Like all immigrants, this group came here looking to scratch out a better life than the one offered in the small coastal towns of Guerrero and Oaxaca where most were born. Many seemed to have found what they were looking for — and then some.

By most accounts, Roberta Acevedo, 42, was among the first of the Costa Chicans to migrate to Pasadena. When she and her husband, Francisco, arrived nearly two decades ago, she said she felt safe in this city at the foot of the mountains that reminded her of her pueblo, Jose Maria Morelos, in Oaxaca.

But back then, Pasadena offered little else that seemed familiar. The stores weren’t stocked with the spices needed to make beef barbacoa or fish dishes from her native coast. She missed the festivals at which young men performed La Danza de Diablos, a traditional "dance of the devils" in which participants wear masks with long beards and horns.

Costa Chicans are steeped in an Afro-Mexican culture that is evident in dance, food and music — they listen to cumbia, not mariachi. Acevedo longed for that culture and the sense of closeness that is common in the coastal pueblos where families are large and everyone seems to know everyone else.

Early on, the Acevedo home became a magnet for the migration. Acevedo and her husband would often wake up to calls in the middle of the night: Eight to 10 relatives and friends had crossed the border and were waiting to be picked up, sometimes as far away as Phoenix.

Eventually, Acevedo, who has seven brothers and sisters living nearby, came to own a Pasadena party and gift store selling piñatas and other accessories, renting tables and chairs and video-taping events. Her sister Yolanda, a former Mexico City police officer, is a seamstress who makes gowns for first Communions and quinceaneras, dresses that can cost as much as $500. One of their brothers is the store’s videographer.

"My dream was that we would all have a chance to make it," Roberta Acevedo said. "Now I feel my dream has come true."

Despite a shared racial heritage, Afro-Mexicans in Southern California have little interaction with African Americans, the relationships hindered by religious, language and cultural differences. And cultural bonds with other Latinos are sometimes stymied by regional and racial preferences.

"I have African American friends who say, ‘You’re not Mexicans. I saw you with your dad and he’s a black man,’ " said Soledad Silver, 16, a junior at John Muir High School in Pasadena. "I say, ‘Yeah, he’s a black man, but he’s also Mexican.’

 

Page 2

Costa Chica player Edgar Gonzalvez, who is on the disabled list, wears a teammate’s gold chain for safekeeping. Afro-Mexicans in Southern California have little interaction with African Americans, the relationships hindered by religious, language and cultural differences. And cultural bonds with other Latinos are sometimes stymied by regional and racial preferences.

 

In Santa Ana, Yismar Toribio’s only knowledge of his parents’ birthplace comes from the stories he’s heard over the years. San Nicolas and Montecillos are beautiful towns full of tradition, places where you don’t stand out if you’re black and Mexican — unlike Santa Ana, where Yismar attends school in a district that is 94% Latino and less than 1% African American.

Things would be better if his school had more blacks, said the 15-year-old freshman with skin the color of rich dark chocolate.

 

At school, he has been stung by teasing and occasional racial epithets. He doesn’t mind the taunts of friends. He can give just as much as he takes.

It’s the taunts of strangers that hurt.

"I’m on the cross-country team, and if I come out with a black shirt on they’ll say, ‘How dare you come out with no shirt on?’ "

Yismar lives with it, but he hasn’t forgotten. One such memory: A teacher put him in the front of the class and someone shouted, "No, he belongs in the back. Put him in the back of the bus.’"

Yismar’s father just wants to keep him focused and is pleased his son has eclipsed his own achievements in school; the accomplishment justifies years of sacrifice. Yismar wants to go to college; he wants to be an attorney.

For many of the Costa Chicans in Southern California, there are reasons to feel pride.

Immigration has brought business success, home ownership, a continuation of community and the chance to improve the level of prosperity back home. The move has also exposed families like the Acevedos to the miseries — and occasional miracles — of urban life.

Early on the morning of Sunday, Aug. 27, 2006, just a few hours before a championship soccer game, Fortino "Chino" Acevedo was visiting with a few friends to cap off a night of partying and drinking.

Fortino, the younger brother of Roberta and Yolanda, had moved to the United States in 2003 from his father’s home on the outskirts of Mexico City; he’d been sent to live in Pasadena to escape the lure of drugs and violence and took a job as a waiter at a country club in La Cañada Flintridge.

As he sat on nearby doorsteps early that morning with his friends, Fortino spotted three men surrounding a fourth near Orange Grove Boulevard and Lake Avenue. It looked like a holdup. He had once been robbed and wanted to put a stop to it.

The 20-year-old with a winning smile stepped into the crowd and announced: "If you are going to have a problem, have a problem with me," said Max Dahlstein, of the Pasadena Police Department. There was a fight, one of the men pulled a gun and shot Fortino in the face.

"He was trying to stop someone from being hurt and he ended up getting shot himself," Dahlstein said.

Fortino was rushed to Huntington Hospital, where the family gathered at his bedside. Several hours later he was pronounced dead.

Doctors encouraged the Acevedo family to consider organ donation; from Mexico, the family patriarch granted permission.

At the time of the shooting, Angel Zorrosa, a 26-year-old distant relative from the same pueblo as the Acevedos, was on kidney dialysis and had just been listed to receive a transplant. Hours after Fortino was declared dead, Zorrosa got a call: As a family member, he would be given priority to receive a kidney.

"I had just been approved that week for a transplant," Zorrosa said.

Last October, Zorrosa witnessed the birth of his first child, a son named Angel Luis. He weighed 5 pounds, 4 ounces.

The birth was a message, said Roberta Acevedo. "I try to find something about Chino in his child."

 

Page 3

"Negro, Chimeco y Feo" — black, dirty and ugly — is the title of a popular song from Costa Chica. The lyrics describe the life of a man who is born in a shack on the coast of Mexico with a midwife’s help. He grows up attending pigs and fishing for shrimp with an old net; because he is poor, he makes his way in the world with almost no clothes.

But the lyrics go on to explain that his soul is pure, unlike those who were "born in clean diapers," those with lighter skin.

 

 

It’s a song that reminds Neri Cisneros, who lives in Santa Ana, of his childhood.

"I was that little boy," he said. "I would eat beans and I didn’t have shoes.

"Sometimes we were the children playing in the streets without underwear. When I hear that song, it makes me sad because I used to live that life."

Cisneros, like many Costa Chicans in Southern California, is nostalgic about his childhood and misses the land of his birth. But he is the father of three daughters who have never set foot in Mexico. He is intent on raising them here. He will not soon return to Costa Chica.

On the day Fortino was shot, the Costa Chicans had a championship soccer game. They played the match and won.

It was important to keep the team focused on playing, said Martin Ibarra Aleman, the team’s coach. The streets are too much of a distraction.

"If you are on the street, then you are heading for trouble," Aleman said. "The guys who play soccer are dealing with the game. For two hours they are in the game and that is all they care about."

But when the game is over, they return to lives shaped by immigration. Steady work has not always been easy to find. Many don’t have driver’s licenses and face stiff penalties if they’re caught on the road in their cars. They worry about the safety and future of their children, most of whom were born here.

At the Sacred Heart Church in Altadena, Padre Glyn Jemmott, a Roman Catholic priest from Trinidad and Tobago who has had a parish of a dozen Costa Chican pueblos since 1984, said Mass one recent Sunday for a congregation of some 500.

Later, he challenged the group to apply their skills in organizing a winning soccer team to strengthening their community. The change is up to them, he said.

"If you have water and you want to get the water to the roots of the plant, you have to carry it there," he said.

 

 

 

 

 A barrier for Cuba’s blacks

New attitudes on once-taboo race questions emerge with a fledgling black movement


Miami Herald.com Staff Report
 

A barrier for Cuba’s blacks 

Published: Wednesday June 20, 2007

HAVANA — Six-foot-two, brown skinned and with semi-curly hair, Denny walked confidently into a government warehouse for a recent job interview. Sitting across from the white manager, he rattled off his qualifications: high school diploma, courses in tourism, hard worker.

They weren’t good enough: He needed his white brother-in-law to vouch for him, Denny recalled.

"Black people tend to do everything bad here," the manager said.

After Fidel Castro’s revolution triumphed in 1959, he declared that Cuba would be a raceless society, banned separate facilities for blacks and whites and launched a string of free education and health programs for the poor — most of them blacks.

Many blacks people still support Castro, saying that without him they would still be peons in the sugar cane fields. One black Cuban diplomat said he had no hope of an education, and his grandmother no medical care for her glaucoma, until the revolution came along.

But listen to some blacks, particularly those born after 1959, and the failures of the revolution also become clear.

"Everyone is not equal here," said Ernesto, 37, as he dodged traffic on a Havana street. Tall and athletically built, he once hoped to be a star soccer player. He now gets by selling used clothing, and said he’s continually hassled by police just because he’s black.

In recent years, a new attitude has been emerging quietly, almost secretly, among Afro-Cubans on what it means to be black in a communist system that maintains ‘‘No hay racismo aquí” — there’s no racism here — and tends to brand those who raise the issue of race as enemies of the revolution.

"The absence of the debate on the racial problem already threatens . . . the revolution’s social project," wrote Esteban Morales Domínguez, a University of Havana professor who is black, in one of his several little-known papers on race since 2005.

In another paper, he noted that "much of the research that has been done on the subject in general has been put away in drawers, endlessly waiting to be published." Black filmmaker Rigoberto López also broached the sensitive topic in a TV appearance in December, saying that while the revolution had brought about structural changes toward racial equality, "its results do not allow us to affirm that its goals have been achieved in all their dimensions."

‘A NEW MOMENTUM’

Afro-Cubans familiar with the situation say black and white Cubans also have been establishing a small but growing number of civil rights-type groups. The government has not cracked down on such usually illegal activities, but neither has it officially recognized them.

"There is a new momentum, which the government is surely frightened by," said Carlos Moore, a Cuban-born expert on race issues now living in Brazil.

In recent years, the Castro government has been on the defensive on the race question. In last year’s book 100 Hours With Fidel by French-Spanish journalist Ignacio Ramonet, Castro admitted that while the revolution had brought progress for women and blacks, discrimination endures.

"Blacks do not live in the best homes; they’re still . . . performing hard jobs, sometimes less-remunerated jobs, and fewer blacks receive family remittances in foreign currency than their white compatriots," he said.

Still, Castro added: "I am satisfied by what we’re doing to discover causes that, if we don’t fight them vigorously, tend to prolong alienation in successive generations."

But Castro’s own Communist Party and government fall short on the race front. Only four recognizably black faces sit on the party’s 21- member Political Bureau, and only two sit on the government’s top body, the 39- member Council of Ministers.

The highest-ranking black in Cuba is Esteban Lazo, a former party chief in the provinces of Havana and Santiago de Cuba. Lazo was tapped by Castro when he took ill last summer, along with brother Raúl Castro and four others, to help rule Cuba in his absence.

And yet, black faces populate Cuba’s political prisons. Some of the nation’s best known dissidents are black. They include independent librarian Omar Pernét Hernández, mason Orlando Zapata Tamayo and physician Oscar Elias Biscét. The latter was sentenced to 27 years for, among other things, organizing a seminar on Martin Luther King’s non–violent forms of protest.

"Race is the biggest social issue facing Cuba," said Enrique Patterson, a Cuban-born Miami author who writes extensively about race, and calls this nation’s race problem a "social bomb."

"If this problem isn’t addressed, Cuba will not be governable in the future."


RACE STILL DIVIDES

Patterson said he believes that while Castro has kept the lid on the race issue by squashing past attempts by blacks to organize or speak out, a post-Castro Cuba won’t be able to contain the frustrations.

"If the Cuban government were to permit black Cubans to organize and raise their problems before [authorities] . . . totalitarianism would fall," he said.

Look beyond the white, brown and black faces in government propaganda murals plastered throughout this island under the slogan Somos Uno — We Are One — and race still divides. Today’s Cuba is more racially and socially integrated than the United States, but it is far from color-blind.

Whites are clearly preferred in the government controlled and highly profitable tourism industry, from taxi drivers to waitresses and hotel maids. Meanwhile, blacks in Old Havana are continually stopped by police for I.D. checks on suspicion of black market activities.

Television programs overwhelmingly show most blacks in menial jobs, and Cubans, like other Latin Americans, still use a cutting expression for a black they admire: El es negro, pero . . . ” — He is black, but . . .

"Just look at the cab drivers lined up in Old Havana," Cito, 52, an Afro-Cuban doctor whispered so his neighbors would not overhear his complaint. "You rarely see someone who looks like me."

Nearly three years ago, Cito, fed up with his paltry government salary and what he described as the racist attitude of his white supervisor, left his post. He now makes his living on the black market, buying meat from farmers in the countryside and selling it in Havana.

"This country has taken away all of my will to live in it," said Cito, 52, whose tiny and sparsely furnished apartment seems like a luxury compared with the rest of his crumbling building. Cito, 52, who is dark-skinned and has the body of a linebacker, recalled his early days in medical school when he dated his now ex-wife, who is white.

He recalled a running conversation his future mother-in-law would have with her daughter: "He’s not a bad guy. I know his family. But there are a lot of other young men in the school you can date. Why him?"

He knew exactly what she meant; she did not want a black son-in-law.


DISPARITY IN NUMBERS

Cuba’s official statistics offer little help on the race issue. The 2002 census, which asked Cubans whether they were white, black or mestizo/mulatto, showed 11 percent of the island’s 11.2 million people described themselves as black. The real figure is more like 62 percent, according to the Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies at the University of Miami.

And the published Census figures provide no way at all to compare blacks and whites in categories like salary or educational levels. Ramón Colás, who left Cuba in 2001 and now runs an Afro-Cuba race-relations project in Mississippi, said he once carried out his own telling survey: Five out of every 100 private vehicles he counted in Havana were driven by a Cuban of color.

The disparity between the census’ 11 percent and UM’s 62 percent also reflects the complicated racial categories in a country where if you look white you are considered white, no matter the genes.

"You know, there are seven different types of blacks in Cuba," said Denny, who now works as a waiter but dreams of a hip-hop career. From darkest to lightest, they are: negro azul, prieto, moreno, mulato, trigueño, jabao and blanconaso.

For Denny, one of six children, the color quagmire astonishes even him sometimes. One sister is married to a light-skinned Cuban who considers himself white, and another is married to a Spaniard. And even though his complexion would allow him to claim something other than black, he says, adamantly and without any reservation, "Me, I am black. I choose to be black."

This identification, he says, was reinforced by his experiences in schools where teachers often favored his lighter-skinned classmates.

"Even though he knew they didn’t have the answer," he recalled of one teacher, ‘‘he would rather call on them than ask me."

And while Cubans of his mother’s and grandmother’s generations readily accept endearing uses of negro or negrito, his peers are treating it as their "N” word.

"It’s unacceptable," said Denny, whose access to the outside world via illegal Internet and satellite TV hook-ups have given him a perspective on race that Cubans in general lack.

He pays for those with U.S. dollars he earns, a relative rarity for blacks. Since whites make up the overwhelming majority of the Cuban exile (population), whites get the bulk of the cash remittances sent to relatives on the island. A study in 2000 by UM’s Cuba studies institute found that the average white Cuban received $81 a year in remittances, compared to $31 for non-white Cubans.

Denny, the would-be hip hop performer, said he also sees racial changes coming through his kind of music, which sometimes defies the government and peppers its rhymes with references to racism.

He remembers one man in particular who landed in jail. ‘‘He was rapping, ‘If you are black, and feel that you are treated equal,’ raise your hand. . . . He was arrested by the police."
A man reads the newspaper as two boys practice drumming in Havana.

MOVEMENT

On a recent Sunday at a Havana park, a group of mostly black Cubans in their 20s and 30s, including some dreadlocked Rastafarians, carried on an intense discussion on reggae icon Bob Marley, whose songs depicted the black struggle.

"He understands what we are going through," said Omar, 31, proudly showing off a life-size portrait of Marley tattooed on his back.

Such talk can be scary to Cubans who know their history. While blacks made up a good portion of the mambises who fought against Spanish colonial rule, they remained poor and ill-treated after Cuba won its independence. A black revolt in 1912 was brutally crushed, leaving behind hundreds of dead and a deeply ingrained fear.

"Their rights and protection from potential genocide and violence depended on them never trying to organize politically as blacks," said Mark Sawyer, a UCLA professor who spent 11 months in Cuba researching his recently published book, Racial Politics in Post-Revolutionary Cuba.

That kind of talk also likely scares the Castro government.

"There is an unstated threat," Moore said. "Blacks in Cuba know that whenever you raise race in Cuba, you go to jail. Therefore the struggle in Cuba is different. There cannot be a civil rights movement. You will have instantly 10,000 black people dead."

Yet something of a black movement is indeed growing, he added.

"It’s subterranean, and taking place among intellectuals and people in general," said Moore. "The government is frightened to the extent to which it does not understand black Cubans today. You have a new generation of black Cubans who are looking at politics in another way."

But the government still has a hold over black Cubans — the fear that the collapse of the communist system would make their lives even worse.

"Black Cubans are afraid of a return of the people in Miami," Moore said. "They are afraid of a restoration of the U.S. influence. The last link Castro has to the black population is based on those two fears. The third is: They are afraid that the social advantages the revolution brought in terms of health, education and even political participation will be abolished if American influence and white influence are reestablished."

Denny says he shares those concerns, but is willing to take the risk.

"We are never going to be slaves again," he said. "We are not stupid. We know the development of the world . . . We intend to have a better life." 

  

 

 

 

 

A barrier for Cuba’s blacks 

 

Puerto Rico, High Blood Pressure, And Skin Color

Black people all over the Americas no matter what country they are found in have higher blood pressures disproportionately for their numbers. They have higher blood pressure than members of other ethnic groups. Some say it is genetic, but new research says that it possibly is more than likely the result of culturally institutionalized social racism that is interwoven throughout those countries where black people live.       

Researchers went to Puerto Rico and did a study on how High blood pressure varies across skin complexion lines. The research was set in Guayama, Puerto Rico, a southeastern coastal town of approximately 44 000 residents. In Puerto Rico there are three major racial classifications Blanco meaning white, Negro meaning black and Trigueno meaning the mixed looking people. Trigueno literally means the color of wheat, and it is applied to people who don’t look white or black — they are mixed race in physical appearance, and these mixed race looking people have various mixed phenotypes (physical appearances). Basically even though they are all called Trigueno there are many different combinational looks among them.   

Researchers discovered that dark skin black Puerto Ricans had higher blood pressure than white and Trigueno Puerto Ricans, and also discovered that the high blood pressure was not genetically based. Some medical Doctors and researchers in the United States have propagated that due to genetic factors — people who have black African ancestry naturally are more prone to develop high blood pressure — because they have black ancestry or are mixed with black.   

Researchers Clarence C. Gravlee, William W. Dressler, and H. Russell Bernard based upon their research in Puerto Rico believe that sociocultural processes mediate the link between skin color and blood pressure. In other words due to socially institutionalized racism against people who are considered black– because of their skin color is the major reason for black Puerto Ricans having a higher blood pressure rate.   

Their high blood pressure rate is not because they were born black. The study shows that the white Puerto Ricans have the lowest blood pressure, then the Trigueno population, and the black Puerto Ricans have the highest. Being a Trigueno puts the person between black and white, and therefore, allows Triguenos to be more fluid (mobile) in Puerto Rican society. The majority of Triguenos are mixed with black, white, and Native Tanio Indian (Arawak). Some of them are mixed with black, white, Tanio Indian and other ethnicities also.    

These mixtures allow the mixed race people to feel comfortable associating with white and black Puerto Ricans. In return many white and black Puerto Ricans feel comfortable associating with the mixed race people (Trigueno). Do to their being an intermediate group called Trigueno this is the major reason that the mixed race people suffer less social racial discrimination, and thus having a lower blood pressure rate than black Puerto Ricans.      

Mixed Race People In America 

In the Untied States of America currently if you have black ancestry that is visible in your phenotype (physical appearance) you are considered black (African American). The reason for this is because of two racist pathologies called the One drop rule (ODR) and hypodescent. The one drop rule says that if you have one drop of black blood then you are black, even if your physical body shows no visible signs of black ancestry. Basically because you have some or a black ancestor, or one black parent, this makes you black.

 
Hypodescent is the practice of determining the lineage of a child of mixed race ancestry by assigning the child to the race of his or her more socially subordinate parent. If one parent is white and the other is black then the child will be considered black — even when that child marries another person. These two racial pathologies are genetically and medically scientifically inaccurate. The two racial pathologies were left over from Slavery and Jim Crow eras of American history. In 1967, the Supreme removed Court anti miscegenation laws, and also, removed the one drop rule (ODR) from the law books of all states that still had these two laws in effect. The ODR and hypo descent are only applied by way of social tradition meaning that many black, white, and other ethnic groups continue to follow the tradition that if a person has visible or invisible but especially visible black ancestry that person is seen as an African American (black).

The mixed race people of America who have some black ancestry but don’t have black phenotypes have high blood pressure, and their blood pressure is just as high as any black person regardless of skin color. Yet the mixed race people (Trigueno) of Puerto Rico have lower blood pressures. Both the mixed race African Americans and mixed race Puerto Ricans are mixed with black, white, and Native Indian ancestries.

The difference is, that in Puerto Rico the Trigueno (mixed race) are not labeled black, and therefore, do not have to deal with the same amount of racism that black Puerto Ricans have to deal with. Wherefore, in America the mixed race people who have some visible black ancestry are labeled black, and therefore, experience the same type of racism that black Americans experience. If there was a government recognized third category that would separate mixed race African Americans who don’t have sub Saharan African phenotypes from African Americans who have sub Saharan African phenotypes, and this category would become socially accepted by society then the mixed race people would eventually have a lower blood pressures. While African Americans who have phenotypes that look more sub Saharan African would continue to have high blood pressures as long as they are more socially discriminated against by general American society. 

So the major culprit is social racism of Puerto Rico and America against black people that is responsible for the High blood pressures.                    

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Copyright American Journal of Public Health 2005

Skin Color, Social Classification, and Blood Pressure in Southeastern Puerto Rico

The Researchers Clarence C. Gravlee is with the Department of Anthropology, Florida State University, Tallahassee. William W. Dressler is with the Department of Anthropology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa. H. Russell Bernard is with the Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1449506 

Abstract 

The Objectives. We tested competing hypotheses for the skin color–blood pressure relationship by analyzing the association between blood pressure and 2 skin color variables: skin pigmentation and social classification.
Methods. We measured skin pigmentation by reflectance spectrophotometry and social classification by linking respondents to ethnographic data on the cultural model of “color” in southeastern Puerto Rico. We used multiple regression analysis to test the associations between these variables and blood pressure in a community-based sample of Puerto Rican adults aged 25–55 years (n=100). Regression models included age, gender, body mass index (BMI), self-reported use of antihypertensive medication, and socioeconomic status (SES).

Results. Social classification, but not skin pigmentation, is associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure through a statistical interaction with SES, independent of age, gender, BMI, self-reported use of antihypertensive medication, and skin reflectance.

Conclusion. Our findings suggest that sociocultural processes mediate the relationship between skin color and blood pressure. They also help to clarify the meaning and measurement of skin color and “race” as social variables in health research.
          
There remains no consensus as to why this pattern exists, leading some to call it “the puzzle of hypertension in African-Americans.”8 One key piece of the puzzle is that, within populations of African ancestry, darker-skinned individuals tend to have higher mean blood pressures than do their lighter-skinned counterparts. Previous researchers have proposed 2 major explanations for this relationship. The first is that dark skin color, as a marker of African ancestry, is linked to a genetic predisposition for high blood pressure.9,10 The second is that dark skin color, as a marker of subordinate social status, exposes dark-skinned individuals to racial discrimination, poverty, and other stressors related to blood pressure.11–13 These competing hypotheses—1 genetic, 1 sociocultural—encapsulate the debate over race and health in general, making the skin color–blood pressure relationship a convenient microcosm of the broader problem.

Our purpose was to test competing explanations for the relationship between skin color and blood pressure more directly than has been done before. We address an important limitation of previous studies by recognizing that genetic and sociocultural hypotheses refer to distinct dimensions of skin color. The hypothesis that skin color is linked to a genetic predisposition for high blood pressure refers to the phenotype of skin pigmentation. The hypothesis that skin color is a marker of exposure to social stressors refers to the cultural significance of skin color as a criterion of social classification. These conceptually distinct variables require distinct measurement operations. However, previous studies have not aimed to isolate the cultural and biological dimensions of skin color or to test their associations with blood pressure.

Discussion

We argue that genetic and sociocultural hypotheses for the relationship between skin color and blood pressure entail 2 distinct skin color variables: the phenotype of skin pigmentation and the cultural significance of skin color as a criterion of social classification. Our measurement strategy operationalizes this distinction, and results suggest that the cultural rather than biological dimension of skin color may be the key variable of interest.
Among respondents who are at or above mean SES, those who are culturally defined as negro, or Black, have higher SBP and DBP, on average, than do those classified as blanco, White, or trigueño, Intermediate. This relationship holds independent of age, gender, body mass, skin pigmentation, or reported use of antihypertensive medication. We found no evidence of darker skin pigmentation being associated with higher blood pressure in this sample.

The nature of the relationship between ascribed color and blood pressure is consistent with the ethnographic record in Puerto Rico. First, the interaction between color and SES corresponds to ethnographic evidence that status distinctions based on color are relatively insignificant in low-SES contexts, and that racism is most pernicious in the middle and upper classes.28–31 Thus, respondents who are classified as negro in high-SES contexts may experience more frequent, frustrating social interactions as a result of institutional and interpersonal discrimination. Experimental and observational studies suggest that chronic exposure to such interactions may be linked to cardiovascular responses, including sustained high blood pressure.32,33
Second, the absence of statistically significant differences in blood pressure between the categories trigueño and blanco is consistent with ethnographic evidence. One notable feature of ethnic classification in Puerto Rico, as opposed to the mainland United States, is the existence of intermediate categories, such as trigueño, that do not carry the stigma of “Blackness.” Whereas people defined as negro are likely to encounter institutional and interpersonal constraints on social mobility, those defined as trigueño face relatively few such constraints as a consequence of color.30,31 The finding that high-SES respondents estimated to be negro but not trigueño have the highest blood pressures is therefore consistent with the hypothesis that sociocultural processes mediate the link between skin color and blood pressure.

Despite speculation about possible genetic links between skin color and blood pressure,9,10 it should not be surprising that skin pigmentation and blood pressure are not significantly associated in our sample. Recent studies show that skin pigmentation is associated with molecular estimates of continental ancestry, with correlations ranging from weak (Mexico, ? =.21) to moderately strong (Puerto Rico, ? =.63) across populations.34 Yet the central question is whether continental ancestry is informative about alleles related to blood pressure. Available evidence suggests that it is not.35,36 Skin pigmentation is informative about continental ancestry precisely because its distribution differs from most human genetic variation. Most genetic markers show relatively small differences between human populations,37 but skin pigmentation shows marked regional variation in response to geographic differences in the intensity of ultraviolet radiation.38 Our findings thus reinforce criticism that skin color should not be used uncritically as a marker of racial–genetic predisposition to disease; genetic hypotheses require genetic data.34

Our findings also relate to recent discussions about causal inference and the measurement of “race” as a cultural construct in social epidemiology. Kaufman and Cooper39 suggest that standard comparisons of racially defined groups are ill suited to explaining racial differences in health. In particular, they point out that causal reasoning in epidemiology is based on a counterfactual framework that asks, “What would the outcome have been if the exposed individual were not exposed to the alleged cause?” When the alleged cause is race, they argue, this model breaks down, because there is no logical counterfactual state: “a Black person who is not Black cannot be considered the same person.”39(p115)

Yet, as others have noted,40,41 the constraint on this counterfactual state is empirical, not logical. To imagine a Black person who is not Black, it is necessary only to distinguish between 2 exposures: having dark skin and being culturally defined as “Black.” It is difficult to operationalize this distinction in the mainland United States, because the prevailing cultural model of racial classification defines dark-skinned people with any detectable trace of African ancestry as “Black.” However, as the Puerto Rican case shows, the relative salience of skin color as a basis of social classification is variable across societies, such that people with a given skin tone may be assigned to different folk ethnoracial categories in everyday social interaction.

A key innovation of our study is the attempt to estimate how survey respondents would be classified in everyday social interaction by linking survey measurement to ethnographic data on the salient cultural model of color.19 This strategy treats the notion that race is a cultural construct as a mandate for research. Some well-meaning commentators argue that, because race is a cultural construct and not a biological reality, public health researchers should abandon it as a variable. For example, Fullilove asks, “Why continue to accept something that is not only without biological merit but also full of evil social import?”42(p1297) We suggest that this question contains the answer. Because racial classification in the United States—and other folk classification schemes in other societies—are full of evil social import, social scientists must devise strategies to operationalize racial classification as a sociocultural variable. Our approach to this problem complements other strategies to explain racial health inequalities, including what Krieger40 identifies as the direct and indirect impacts of racism on health.

Perhaps because research on skin color and blood pressure often reflects the assumptions of a racialized worldview,43 previous studies have not distinguished between skin pigmentation and the cultural significance of skin color as potentially independent predictors of blood pressure. However, once we recognize that distinction, existing evidence favors the cultural rather than biological significance of skin color. Seven previous studies of skin color and blood pressure7,9,44–48 measured skin pigmentation with reflectance spectrophotometry; none reported an association between pigmentation and blood pressure in the entire sample after control for age, gender, and SES. One of these studies found an association only in low-SES respondents,46 whereas another reported an association only in Egyptian women.48 By contrast, 5 studies16,49–52 that measured skin color by observer ratings reported a consistent association between skin color and blood pressure across the sample. Thus, studies that measure skin pigmentation precisely using reflectance spectrophotometry provide the weakest evidence for an association between skin color and blood pressure. Those that approximate social classification with observer ratings provide the strongest evidence of such an association.

This set of findings underscores the importance of our measurement approach. However, limitations of the research design moderate the strength of our results. First, by comparison to previous studies, our sample is small. It is noteworthy that, despite the small sample size, we observed a statistically significant relationship between ascribed color and blood pressure. Case diagnostics also indicate that this relationship does not depend on a small number of unusual cases. Still, it remains to be seen whether our findings can be replicated in other parts of Puerto Rico or elsewhere. A larger sample would also increase the statistical power to detect more complex interactions between SES, color, and other important factors, such as gender, perceived discrimination, or access to health care. Second, although our measure of ascribed color is linked to ethnographic data regarding the salient cultural model, it is unclear how well it estimates everyday social classification.

This unresolved question is a critical area for future research. One important extension of this work would be to examine whether nonbiological markers of social status influence the ascription of color and, if so, how this effect alters the association with blood pressure. Third, we did not collect data on dietary intake or energy expenditure. There is evidence that both skin color and exposure to social stressors are associated with blood pressure, independent of such measures,16,21 but attention to nutritional status and physical activity would enhance future research. Fourth, the biological significance of skin pigmentation may differ in Puerto Rico and the mainland United States, given different historical processes of admixture. This difference limits direct comparability between Puerto Rico and the mainland. However, the fact that skin color and blood pressure are related in societies with different histories of genetic admixture, but with common histories of slavery and racial discrimination, suggests that nongenetic factors may provide a more parsimonious explanation.

Given these limitations, our study is significant, more for the questions it raises than for the answers it provides. Skin pigmentation is central to debates about race and genetics, but most researchers fail to distinguish its significance as a biological parameter from its significance as a marker of social status and exposure to stressors.34 Our measurement strategy provides one way to make this distinction explicit. Our finding that blood pressure is associated with culturally ascribed color—but not with skin pigmentation—does not exclude a genetic basis to population differences in blood pressure. Yet it does cast doubt on genetic explanations for the relationship between skin color and blood pressure. This finding highlights the need for testable hypotheses and appropriate measurement operations in future research on the causes of poor health in the African Diaspora.

Chance writes: This study is very interesting, and this why African Americans who constantly engage in negative behavioral pathologies in public — have to be careful. They constantly help give a bad reputation to the black American race, and this helps give the go head to the subconscious biases — that whites and non whites have about blacks being animal like, and bruteful in behavior. The pathologies of Black sub culture are partially responsible for why blacks are seen as ape like, and racism is the other culprit. These two combined have given certain people from other ethnic groups the go head to feel comfortable mistreating blacks. Even police officers feel comfortable mistreating blacks because they are aware of the social climate — that they may not be punished for mistreating and beating a black person. There is no justification for mistreating people because you believe they are lower than you.        

Discrimination Against Blacks Linked To Dehumanization, Study Finds

Sciencedaily.com Friday February 8, 2008

Crude historical depictions of African Americans as ape-like may have disappeared from mainstream U.S. culture, but new research reveals that many Americans subconsciously associate blacks with apes.

In addition, the findings show that society is more likely to condone violence against black criminal suspects as a result of its broader inability to accept African Americans as fully human, according to the researchers.

Co-author Jennifer Eberhardt, a Stanford associate professor of psychology who is black, said she was shocked by the results, particularly since they involved subjects born after Jim Crow and the civil rights movement. "This was actually some of the most depressing work I have done," she said. "This shook me up. You have suspicions when you do the work—intuitions—you have a hunch. But it was hard to prepare for how strong [the black-ape association] was—how we were able to pick it up every time."

The paper, "Not Yet Human: Implicit Knowledge, Historical Dehumanization and Contemporary Consequences," is the result of a series of six previously unpublished studies conducted by Eberhardt, Pennsylvania State University psychologist Phillip Atiba Goff (the lead author and a former student of Eberhardt’s) and Matthew C. Jackson and Melissa J. Williams, graduate students at Penn State and Berkeley, respectively. The paper is scheduled to appear Feb. 7 in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, which is published by the American Psychological Association.

The research took place over six years at Stanford and Penn State under Eberhardt’s supervision. It involved mostly white male undergraduates. In a series of studies that subliminally flashed black or white male faces on a screen for a fraction of a second to "prime" the students, researchers found subjects could identify blurry ape drawings much faster after they were primed with black faces than with white faces.

The researchers consistently discovered a black-ape association even if the young adults said they knew nothing about its historical connotations. The connection was made only with African American faces; the paper’s third study failed to find an ape association with other non-white groups, such as Asians. Despite such race-specific findings, the researchers stressed that dehumanization and animal imagery have been used for centuries to justify violence against many oppressed groups.

"Despite widespread opposition to racism, bias remains with us," Eberhardt said. "African Americans are still dehumanized; we’re still associated with apes in this country. That association can lead people to endorse the beating of black suspects by police officers, and I think it has lots of other consequences that we have yet to uncover."

Historical background

Scientific racism in the United States was graphically promoted in a mid-19th-century book by Josiah C. Nott and George Robins Gliddon titled Types of Mankind, which used misleading illustrations to suggest that "Negroes" ranked between "Greeks" and chimpanzees. "When we have a history like that in this country, I don’t know how much of that goes away completely, especially to the extent that we are still dealing with severe racial inequality, which fuels and maintains those associations in ways that people are unaware," Eberhardt said.

Although such grotesque characterizations of African Americans have largely disappeared from mainstream U.S. society, Eberhardt noted that science education could be partly responsible for reinforcing the view that blacks are less evolved than whites. An iconic 1970 illustration, "March of Progress," published in the Time-Life book Early Man, depicts evolution beginning with a chimpanzee and ending with a white man. "It’s a legacy of our past that the endpoint of evolution is a white man," Eberhardt said. "I don’t think it’s intentional, but when people learn about human evolution, they walk away with a notion that people of African descent are closer to apes than people of European descent. When people think of a civilized person, a white man comes to mind."

Consequences of socially endorsed violence

In the paper’s fifth study, the researchers subliminally primed 115 white male undergraduates with words associated with either apes (such as "monkey," "chimp," "gorilla") or big cats (such as "lion," "tiger," "panther"). The latter was used as a control because both images are associated with violence and Africa, Eberhardt said. The subjects then watched a two-minute video clip, similar to the television program COPS, depicting several police officers violently beating a man of undetermined race. A mugshot of either a white or a black man was shown at the beginning of the clip to indicate who was being beaten, with a description conveying that, although described by his family as "a loving husband and father," the suspect had a serious criminal record and may have been high on drugs at the time of his arrest.

The students were then asked to rate how justified the beating was. Participants who believed the suspect was white were no more likely to condone the beating when they were primed with either ape or big cat words, Eberhardt said. But those who thought the suspect was black were more likely to justify the beating if they had been primed with ape words than with big cat words. "Taken together, this suggests that implicit knowledge of a Black-ape association led to marked differences in participants’ judgments of Black criminal suspects," the researchers write.

According to the paper’s authors, this link has devastating consequences for African Americans because it "alters visual perception and attention, and it increases endorsement of violence against black suspects." For example, the paper’s sixth study showed that in hundreds of news stories from 1979 to 1999 in the Philadelphia Inquirer, African Americans convicted of capital crimes were about four times more likely than whites convicted of capital crimes to be described with ape-relevant language, such as "barbaric," "beast," "brute," "savage" and "wild." "Those who are implicitly portrayed as more ape-like in these articles are more likely to be executed by the state than those who are not," the researchers write.

The way forward

Despite the paper’s findings, Eberhardt said she is optimistic about the future. "This work isn’t arguing that there hasn’t been any progress made or that we are living in the same society that existed in the 19th century," she said. "We have made a lot of progress on race issues, but we should recognize that racial bias isn’t dead. We still need to be aware of that and aware of all the different ways [racism] can affect us, despite our intentions and motivations to be egalitarian. We still have work to do."

For Eberhardt, two stories of race exist in America. "One is about the disappearance of bias—that it’s no longer with us," she said. "But the other is about the transformation of bias. It’s not the egregious bias anymore, but it’s modern bias, subtle bias." With both of these stories, she said, there is an understanding that society has moved beyond the historic battles centered around race. "We want to argue, with this work, that there is one old race battle that we’re still fighting," she said. "That is the battle for blacks to be recognized as fully human."

This research was supported by a Stanford University Dean’s Award to Jennifer Eberhardt.

Adapted from materials provided by Stanford University.

 From sciencedaily.com

Discrimination Against Blacks Linked To Dehumanization, Study Finds

 

African American and Black American

By Chance Kelsey, chancellorfiles.com 

Some mixed race people in the multiracial movement feel that there is a difference between the African American ethnic group and black race of America. They feel that the African American ethnic group is made up of mixed race people who are part black mixed with white, or part black mixed with other ethnic groups. And, they feel that the black American race is made up of monoracial blacks.  Continue Reading »

  Eugenics, Genetics, And Society

By Chance Kelsey, Chancellorfiles.com

 

Sir Francis Galton was a British social scientist he was born on February 16, 1822 and died on January 17, 1911. Galton was Charles Darwin’s cousin. Francis Galton coined the term eugenics in 1883 the word eugenics means good breeding. The goal of eugenics is to improve the genetic quality of the population regarding intelligence, health, conscientiousness, and moral character. Eugenicists have been concerned with increasing the over all health, higher intelligence, eliminating diseases, and increasing the moral character of the population by selective breeding. This selective breeding is really not new to humanity it has been going on for thousands of years in one form or another.

In eugenics selective breeding means when men and women procreate with someone whom they are compatible with the marriage partner must be highly intelligent, educated, morally developed, healthy, employed, and conscientious.
 
It is better to have more educated people than uneducated, healthy over unhealthy (sickly), good moral character over weaker moral character, intelligent over unintelligent. Basically eugenics is saying marry and have children with someone on your intelligence level, in good health, employed, and of good moral character.
         
 
Europe And Eugenics
 
During the European renaissance and medieval time periods Kings, Queens, and the aristocracy married high class society people whom were of nobility. The social elite of society seldom married serfs and peasants (socially lower class people) who had nothing to offer because they were poor. During those times periods in Europe many of the poorer did not live long due to bad health, illnesses, starvation famine, killed by other people because they did not have the means to protect themselves to the same degree that the social elite had, and I personally believe that stress and depression of daily living also contributed to the early deaths of some of these poor peasants.
 
The result of the social elite which was made up of Kings, Queens, and the aristocracy marrying other socially elite people was a class of healthy, educated, intelligent, employed, financially secure, consciousness, and morally developed people. The children born between these socially elite men and women displayed the same qualities of their parents. Many children born to the serfs and peasants often died in child birth, and some died at a young age.   
 
Combined with the poor people already living shorter life spans than the aristocracy, the results were the population was heavily replenished with healthy, educated, highly intelligent, morally developed people. These children grew up to become kings, Queens, business people, explorers, scientists, Doctors, government officials, religious leaders, educators, artists (painters) and many other important positions in life. Europe experienced some of its greatest cultural achievements during the time periods from 13th to the mid 19th century.
 
It is a known fact, that in order for an advanced civilization to continue progressing economically, educationally, good health, and continue having a democracy type government that civilization must have enough citizen who are educated, intelligent, and morally developed (good moral character). If intelligence and good moral character are missing that civilization (country) will deteriorate.                
 
Sir Ronald Fisher born February 17, 1890 and died on July 29, 1962 was an English statistician, evolutionary biologist, and geneticist. Fisher believed that the genetic deterioration and decline of classical Greece and Rome came about partly due to deterioration of this kind. Brought on by the failure of patrician class to reproduce itself. With this failure by the patrician class (social elites) not reproducing itself, the serf peasant class (poor people) reproduced more children whom were uneducated, less intelligent, bad health, and of lower moral character. Sir Ronald Fisher was the professor of genetics at the University of Cambridge during the 1920’s and 1930’s.
 
 
 
Ancient Civilizations
 
Even in ancient civilizations like Egypt, Babylonia, Persia, India, Greece, Rome, Ancient Mexico and the American continent selective breeding was done with the aristocracy and social elite marrying people who were elite persons of society like themselves. And also, because the elite people of society were the ones who were more educated this helped them to transfer their money, power, positions, culture, and knowledge to their offspring (children). A lot depended on your birth back then. If you were born poor you died poor, there was little or no room to move up the social and economic ladder towards middle class or wealth. If you were born in the aristocracy or middle class then you remained apart of that class for the rest of your life unless some unfortunate event manifested that caused you to lose your status.  
 
   
 
 
Selective Breeding For Plants, Foods, And Animals

 
 
In The middle ages larger and stronger horses were breed for war, carring soldiers around, heavy armor, labor, and strong enough to carry the rider around without getting tired so easily. Different types of Dogs were bred for different functions sheep dog, retriever, hounds, the German shepherd, and other dog breeds. Race horses were breed for faster running speeds. Flowers and plants were breed for better quality. Fruits and vegetables were breed for higher quality. The modern strawberry that we see today was breed in a London garden during the first decade of the 19th century. A mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. So eugenic breeding for plants, animals, and foods has been around for hundreds of years and maybe even longer.
 
 
Slavery And Eugenics

 
Eugenics has been used during Slavery also. Throughout history were slavery has been practiced, certain slave owners encouraged their slaves to procreated with each other to produce more slaves. Slave owners liked strong slaves because they could work harder. Having many slaves also allowed more worked to get done.
 
 
Scientific research eugenics  
 
The scientific research program of eugenics demonstrated that intelligence and moral character are determining factors when it comes to cultural, economic, education, and scientific achievements, and these qualities tend to be transmitted in families generation to generation and, these qualities are partly determined genetically. In the early decades of the twentieth century none of these qualities were established as fact, but research in the social sciences and genetics have proven that they were true.      
 
 
Culture, environment, and childhood upbringing also play a role in determining how successful a person and country will be but genetics play a role too.
 
 
Political Eugenics
 
 
Eugenics has been used in a negative political way also. During the political reign of Adolf Hitler the leader of Germany during the Second World War (1939 – 1945) the Nazis used eugenics to eliminate and kill many Jews and other people they saw as undesirable and inferior. Approximately six million Jewish people killed by the Nazi Germans. The Nazis used gas oven chambers, Hangings, firing quads, etc to eliminate Jews and other people. This was eugenics being used in a bad way.
 
Also countries through out history have put people who were mentally ill or retarded in institutions for the rest of their lives because they were viewed as mentally ill. This also is a type of eugenics of purifying the countries of undesirables.
 
Another objective of eugenics was to influence and persuade the elite people of society to have more children by offering them financial incentives for having more children. This was called positive eugenics. This policy of offering finical incentives (money) to the elite to produce more children has not had very much success. Only in the country of Singapore did offering finical incentives to citizen to produce more children have some moderate success under the political leadership of former Prime Minister, Lee Kuan Yew was a keen eugenicist.     
 
 
Birth Control
 
Birth control also have are a part of eugenics. Birth control helps prevent the increase of unexpected pregnancies. At the same time many of the under class (poor) don’t use birth control, and therefore, they produce more children than the middle class and rich people (the elites of today). When birth control came along many of the elite people of society started using it, and the result is that they produce fewer children than the under class. Unless the under class poverty stricken people move up to the level of middle class a once prosperous country will deteriorate due to an increase in less educated, morally developed, and intelligent people.             

 
The Under Class
 
The under class are the poorest people society, and they have more criminals among them, highest pregnancy rate, less educated, chronically unemployed, violence, gangs, more welfare dependency, and live in most dangerous neighborhoods in the country. The underclass increased due to medical science finding cures for illnesses and diseases that long ago use to kill off many poor children and poor adults who were born into the under class. Another factor is that food is now more available due to technologically advances in agricultural department. Long ago draft horses, oxen and mules use to plow the field so the seeds could get planted and harvested in the summer. These animals could only do so much work before getting tired. Technology comes along and creates a Tractor. The tractor can plow a field faster and this allows farmers to plant more seeds and grow more crops to harvest, thus more food is produce and more people are fed. Now with more food this meant that more lives will be saved from starvation, and with more under class people now having access to better and more food they began to grow in numbers.
 
The key is to help the under class move up to the leave of middle class, and help them improve in education, moral character, intelligence (by educating them), and gain employment this will help society and the under class. The more under class people move up the economic ladder towards middle class the less crime, violence, gangs, out of wedlock births, and social ills.        
 
                       
 
 
Middle Class

 
When middle class men and women marry each other they increase their chances of producing children, who are intelligent, good moral character, educated, and able to become economically stable in society. So you see eugenics in and of itself is not bad it is practiced by all countries and ethnic groups. Eugenics is a natural part of humanity; it is when it is being abused in a negative way that eugenics becomes a problem.
 
Conclusion
 
Eugenic and genetic science will increase in popularity and credibility the twenty first century, and some married couples will use eugenic and genetic science to have embryos implanted in the females to produce healthy and intelligent children. As stated eugenics is a natural part of humanity; it is when it is being abused in a negative way that eugenics becomes a problem that can lead to many innocent people being harmed.  

 

four-horsemen-apocalypse                 

 The four horsemen of the apocalypse

 

Chance writes: The book of revelation (the apocalypse of St John) is a book of prophecy, and it has very esoteric interpretations which are not easily understood by the average religious or non religious person of today. Often many religious teachers misinterpret many parts of this book also. The four horsemen of the sixth chapter of the book of revelation actually symbolizes war and the various racial groups that populate the planet.

 By Chance Kelsey, chancellorfiles.com

 

 Four Horsemen In The Book Of Revelation

 (the apocalypse)

 

Revelation 6th Chapter verses 1-12

 

The White Horse

 

Verse 1. And I saw when the Lamb opened one of the seals, and I heard, as it were the noise of thunder, one of the four beasts saying, Come and see. 2. And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow; and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer. 

    Commentary: The white horse represents the white race, the white race conquered many non-white countries all over the world. The bow represents weapons the white race used many weapons like cannons, guns, swords, etc when they conquered the world. Observe from the 16th century to 19th century whites used weapons to conquer other countries around the world. White countries even conquered other white countries and other colonies that belonged to other European white countries. England, France, Spain, Portugal, The Netherlands, and Denmark are white European countries that conquered other countries around the world.

The United States of America was conquered by whites and in world war two America (United States Of America) fought against Japan and Germany and defeated both countries and their allies. So the white horse represents the white race and this means any white person living in any country on the planet this includes Europe, America, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and any other country that has whites. This verse is also talking about how White America continues to conquer the world by trying to spread America’s political power, culture, and influence into other countries. White America by doing this is keeping the conqueror tradition of their European forefather alive. 

               The Red Horse

  Rev 6: verse 3. And when he had opened the second seal, I heard the second beast say, Come and see. 4. And there went out another horse that was red: and power was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another: and there was given unto him a great sword.  

 Commentary: The Red horse represents – The Native American Indians, The Native Americans are the red race, but the white race conquered them. Whites now have the red warrior blood of war in them just like the Native Americans had the red warrior blood of their forefathers in them. White Americans now have this red warrior characteristic inside of them. And power was given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, who is it that sits on top of the red horse and who is the rider of the red horse? The American government sits on top of and rides the red horse.

 
As stated the American government is the rider of the red horse. The government is a powerful system that governs the United States of America, and the American government will have wars with other foreign countries.  The great sword represents powerful weapons; the United States government has many powerful weapons that it will use to fight with other foreign countries. There will be no peace on earth because America and other countries will be fighting with each other and millions will die. The United States of America will very soon experience blackening of the sky over America due to nuclear bombs from China.

 These explosions will blacken the sun from view the citizens of America will howl with pain, fear, suffering, and dread. The storm is gathering itself in preparation for this event. The sky will be filled with pitch black clouds people of America will mourn, cry tears, death will be everywhere, and great tribulations will fall upon America. The United States of America will not survive let the winds blow and let the storms rise. “Oh yes” these tribulations will come to pass.

       The Black Horse

 Rev 6: verse 5. And when he had opened the third seal, I heard the third beast say, Come and see. And I beheld, and lo a black horse; and he that sat on him had a pair of balances in his hand. 

  Commentary: The Black horse represents – The black race, all dark skin racial groups, and brown skin racial groups. The black horse also represents honest labor. Africans, Arabs, Mestizo Hispanics (Mestizo Hispanic are brown skinned), India and all of central Asia (Pakistan, Afghanistan, etc) and all brown skin and dark skin racial groups are   represented by the black horse. Many members of these black and brown racial groups work hard for their daily bread, many members of these racial groups are very poor and they have the highest amount of poverty in the world percentage wise. There is often a lot of famine (lack of food) among black and brown racial groups too.  

          Balance in hand represents slavery to unfair job trades as we know these darker racial groups are more exploited by employers than any other skin complexions. The black and brown racial groups have many of their members exploited with lower wages, longer hours with little pay, seldom get a pay raise, etc they are like slaves in chains bound to work hard and for little like a slave. But many of them work and bring home what money they can to their families. 

      Rev 6: Verse 6. And I heard a voice in the midst of the four beasts say, A measure of wheat for a penny, and three measures of barley for a penny; and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine.

  Commentary: The hard work that humans do by way of jobs to obtain their daily bread. All humans from all racial and ethnic groups have to work hard for a living so they can feed themselves and their families.  

 
 The Pale Horse (Yellow Horse)

 Rev 6: Verse 7. And when he had opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth beast say, Come and see. 8.And I looked, and behold a pale horse: and his name that sat on him was Death, and Hell followed with him. And power was given unto them over the fourth part of the earth, to kill with sword, and with hunger, and with death, and with the beasts of the earth.

 
Commentary: The Pale horse represents – The Yellow race, the yellow race are the oriental Asians. The verse is talking specifically about the China the Chinese army is powerful and when world war three erupts China is going to kill millions of people. The war between the East and West will happen and the east will win, China and its allies will defeat America and its allies. The Chinese horse drags death and hell with him.

  This pale horse (yellow horse) is filled with anger and is furious and death, hell, and destruction are with him. The Chinese army is incredibly and terribly powerful china has all kinds of dangerous weapons and when China fights America and America’s military allies they will become afraid of China. America will have to use nuclear weapons on China and China’s allies because the Chinese army will have easily defeated America’s military. But China has nuclear weapons also, and is going to use them on America and America’s military allies. Russia will help America fight against the Chinese but China is going to destroy Russia also. The yellow horse is the most powerful of the four horses no one can beat the yellow horse when war erupts.

 
 China’s government is an angry and furious government and is going to destroy all countries that fight against. The Chinese, North Koreans, and Muslims will be allies against America and its allies. Due to the war many countries will have many of its citizens starve too death. And what little food is around people are going to fight and kill each other for it. Money will be worthless and yes China will be hit with nuclear atomic weapons by America but when the war is over China and its allies will be the winners. The East (China) will defeat the west (America and Europe). 

             Rev 6:12  And I beheld when he had opened the sixth seal, and, lo, there was a great earthquake; and the sun because black as sack cloth of hair, and the moon became as blood.

 
 Commentary: The radio active particles of the nuclear explosions will greatly alter the ozone layer of planet earth. Scientists already have proven that the earth’s ozone layer is not as thick as it used to be and more ultraviolet radiation from the sun is reaching the Earth. Over exposure to ultraviolet radiation, often referred to as “UV rays,” can cause skin cancer and other serious health effects. The nuclear explosions are going to release pandemonium on earth, and the ozone layer which acts like a filter to protect humans from the sun will no loner protect us from the sun because of the radio active particles from the nuclear atomic bombs.

 The radio active particles will finally destroy the ozone layer which is a filter that protects humans from the sun rays. When this filter becomes totally altered by the nuclear atomic explosions it will no longer classify and decompose the solar rays into light and fire. And because of this therefore, the result will be humans will see the sun turn black as a sack cloth of hair. Fear will be every where and some people will commit suicide great tribulations will on the earth. The nuclear atomic explosions will bring plagues, earthquakes, sea quakes, tidal waves, and terrible cataclysm. Calamities, Calamities, calamities, “Oh yes” let the THUNDER GROWL and let the FLOODS FLOW.  These trials and tribulations must come first in order for there to be peace on earth in a future day.

 

   By Chance Kelsey (Chancellor)

 

Written during the 21st century by Chance

 

 

The Willie Lynch Speech Is a Fake

By Chance Kelsey, chancellorfiles.com

The Willie Lynch letter is a fake, black scholars have proven it. Also just like Eli Whitney the inventor of the cotton gin was said to be a black man — but in reality he was a white man. These Urban myths have be around for a while now.  

 

Saturday, November 26, 2005

The Death Of The Willie Lynch Speech

Sistas & Brothas,

This is an excellent critique/expose of the Willie Lynch "talk." I have made it clear to folks anytime they raise this letter/talk that it’s a fabrication. Brotha Prof. Manu Ampim has joined several other Black scholars and activists who have exposed the myths of the Wilie Lyncht 1712 talk by advancing a thoroly detailed refutation of its authenticity.

I first saw this "document" in a poor xerox form from a "Liberation Library" copy dated (I think)
1970. I might still have the paper buried in a thousand other old papers I have. When I first saw it, it also struck me as a contemporary piece and inaccurate historically.

We must struggle to exorcise this "urban legend" approach to our history and I’m glad to see this important contribution by our Brotha Prof. Manu Ampim being circulated.

In Struggle,

Sam Anderson author: The Black Holocaust for Beginners (writers & readers)

 

http://blackeducator.blogspot.com/2005/11/death-of-willie-lynch-speech.html 

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DEATH OF THE WILLIE LYNCH SPEECH by Prof. Manu Ampim

Since 1995 there has been much attention given to a speech claimed to be delivered by a "William Lynch" in 1712. This speech has been promoted widely throughout African American and Black British circles. It is re-printed on numerous websites, discussed in chat rooms, forwarded as a "did you know" email to friends and family members, assigned as required readings in college and high school courses, promoted at conferences, and there are several books published with the title of "Willie Lynch."[1] In addition, new terminology called the "Willie Lynch Syndrome" has been devised to explain the psychological problems and the disunity among Black people.

Further, it is naively assumed by a large number of Willie Lynch believers that this single and isolated speech, allegedly given almost 300 years ago, completely explains the internal problems and divisions within the African American community. They assume that the "Willie Lynch Syndrome" explains Black disunity and the psychological trauma of slavery. While some have questioned and even dismissed this speech from the outset, it is fair to say that most African Americans who are aware of the speech have not questioned its authenticity, and assume it to be a legitimate and very crucial historical document which explains what has happened to African Americans.

However, when we examine the details of the "Willie Lynch Speech" and its assumed influence, then it becomes clear that the belief in its authenticity and widespread adoption during the slavery era is nothing more than a modern myth. In this brief examination, I will show that the only known "William Lynch" was born three decades after the alleged speech, that the only known "William Lynch" did not own a plantation in the West Indies, that the "speech" was not mentioned by anyone in the 18th or 19th centuries, and that the "speech" itself clearly indicates that it was composed in the late 20th century.

SILENCE ON LYNCH SPEECH

The "Willie Lynch Speech" is not mentioned by any 18th or 19th century slavemasters or anti-slavery activists. There is a large body of written materials from the slavery era, yet there is not one reference to a William Lynch speech given in
1712. This is very curious because both free and enslaved African Americans wrote and spoke about the tactics and practices of white slavemasters. Frederick Douglass, Nat Turner, Olaudah Equino, David Walker, Maria Stewart, Martin Delaney, Henry Highland Garnet, Richard Allen, Absolom Jones, Frances Harper, William Wells Brown, and Robert Purvis were African Americans who initiated various efforts to rise up against the slave system, yet none cited the alleged Lynch speech. Also, there is also not a single reference to the Lynch speech by any white abolitionists, including John Brown, William Lloyd Garrison, and Wendell Phillips. Similarly, there has been no evidence found of slavemasters or pro-slavery advocates referring to (not to mention utilizing) the specific divide and rule information given in the Lynch speech.

Likewise, none of the most credible historians on the enslavement of African Americans have ever mentioned the Lynch speech in any of their writings. A reference to the Lynch speech and its alleged divide and rule tactics are completely missing in the works of Benjamin Quarles, John Hope Franklin, John Henrik Clarke, William E.B. Du Bois, Herbert Aptheker, Kenneth Stampp, John Blassingame, Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, Darlene Clark-Hine, and Lerone Bennett. These authors have studied the details and dynamics of Black social life and relations during slavery, as well as the "machinery of control" by the slavemasters, yet none made a single reference to a Lynch speech.

Since the Willie Lynch speech was not mentioned by any slavemasters, pro-slavery advocates, abolitionists, or historians studying the slavery era, the question of course is when did it appear?

FIRST REFERENCE TO LYNCH SPEECH

The first reference to the Willie Lynch speech was in a late 1993 on-line listing of sources, posted by Anne Taylor, who was then the reference librarian at the University of Missouri at St. Louis (UMSL).[2] She posted ten sources to the UMSL library database and the Lynch speech was the last item in the listing. Taylor in her 1995 email exchanges with the late Dr. William Piersen (Professor of History, Fisk University) and others interested in the origin of the Lynch speech indicated that she keep the source from where she received the speech anonymous upon request, because he was unable to establish the authenticity of the document. On October 31, 2005, Taylor wrote:

"Enough butt-covering, now it’s time to talk about where I got it. The publisher who gave me this [speech] wanted to remain anonymous…because he couldn’t trace it, either, and until now I’ve honored his wishes. It was printed in a local, widely-distributed, free publication called The St. Louis Black Pages, 9th anniversary edition, 1994*, page 8."

[*Taylor notes: "At risk of talking down to you, it’s not unusual for printed materials to be ‘post-dated’ – the 1994 edition came out in 1993].[3]

The Lynch speech was distributed in the Black community in 1993 and 1994, and in fact I came across it during this time period, but as an historian trained in Africana Studies and primary research I never took it serious. I simply read it and put it in a file somewhere.

However, the Lynch speech was popularized at the Million Man March (held in Washington, DC) on October 16, 1995, when it was referred to by Min. Louis Farrakhan. He stated:

We, as a people who have been fractured, divided and destroyed because of our division, now must move toward a perfect union. Let’s look at a speech, delivered by a white slave holder on the banks of the James River in 1712… Listen to what he said. He said, ‘In my bag, I have a foolproof method of controlling Black slaves. I guarantee everyone of you, if installed correctly, it will control the slaves for at least 300 years’…So spoke Willie Lynch 283 years ago."

The 1995 Million Man March was broadcast live on C-Span television and thus millions of people throughout the U.S. and the world heard about the alleged Willie Lynch speech for the first time. Now, ten years later, the speech has become extremely popular, although many historians and critical thinkers questioned this strange and unique document from the outset.

————————– Full Text of the alleged Willie Lynch Speech, 1712:

"Gentlemen, I greet you here on the bank of the James River in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and twelve. First, I shall thank you, the gentlemen of the Colony of Virginia, for bringing me here. I am here to help you solve some of your problems with slaves. Your invitation reached me on my modest plantation in the West Indies where I have experimented with some of the newest and still the oldest methods of control of slaves.

Ancient Rome would envy us if my program were implemented. As our boat sailed south on the James River, named for our illustrious King, whose version of the Bible we cherish. I saw enough to know that your problem is not unique. While Rome used cords of woods as crosses for standing human bodies along its highways in great numbers you are here using the tree and the rope on occasion.

I caught the whiff of a dead slave hanging from a tree a couple of miles back. You are not only losing a valuable stock by hangings, you are having uprisings, slaves are running away, your crops are sometimes left in the fields too long for maximum profit, you suffer occasional fires, your animals are killed.

Gentlemen, you know what your problems are: I do not need to elaborate. I am not here to enumerate your problems, I am here to introduce you to a method of solving them. In my bag here, I have a fool proof method for controlling your Black slaves. I guarantee everyone of you that if installed correctly it will control the slaves for at least 300 hundred years [sic]. My method is simple. Any member of your family or your overseer can use it.

I have outlined a number of differences among the slaves: and I take these differences and make them bigger. I use fear, distrust, and envy for control purposes. These methods have worked on my modest plantation in the West Indies and it will work throughout the South. Take this simple little list of differences, and think about them.

On top of my list is ‘Age’, but it is there only because it starts with an ‘A’: the second is ‘Color’ or shade, there is intelligence, size, sex, size of plantations, status on plantation, attitude of owners, whether the slave live in the valley, on hill, East, West, North, South, have fine hair, coarse hair, or is tall or short. Now that you have a list of differences. I shall give you an outline of action-but before that I shall assure you that distrust is stronger than trust and envy is stronger than adulation, respect, or admiration.

The Black slave after receiving this indoctrination shall carry on and will become self re-fueling and self generating for hundreds of years, maybe thousands. Don’t forget you must pitch the old Black male vs. the young Black male, and the young Black male against the old Black male. You must use the dark skin slaves vs. the light skin slaves and the light skin slaves vs. the dark skin slaves. You must use the female vs. the male, and the male vs. the female. You must also have your white servants and overseers distrust all Blacks, but it is necessary that your slaves trust and depend on us. They must love, respect and trust only us.

Gentlemen, these kits are your keys to control. Use them. Have your wives and children use them, never miss an opportunity. If used intensely for one year, the slaves themselves will remain perpetually distrustful. Thank you, gentlemen."
—————————————

WHO WAS WILLIE LYNCH ?

The only known "William Lynch" who could have authorized a 1712 speech in Virginia was born 30 years after the alleged speech was given. The only known "William Lynch" lived from 1742-1820 and was from Pittsylvania, Virginia. It is obvious that "William Lynch" could not have authored a document 30 years before he was born! This "William Lynch" never owned a plantation in the West Indies, and he did not own a slave plantation in Virginia.

DIVIDE & RULE TACTICS

The Lynch speech lists a number of divide and rule tactics that were not important concerns to slaveholders in the early 1700s, and they certainly were not adopted. The anonymous writer of the Lynch speech states, "I have outlined a number of differences among the slaves: and I take these differences and make them bigger." Here is the list provided in the Lynch speech: age, color, intelligence, fine hair vs. coarse hair, tall vs. short, male vs. female.

However, none of these "tactics" were concerns to slaveholders in the early 1700s in the West Indies or colonial America. No credible historian has indicated that any of the items on the Lynch list were a part of a divide and rule strategy in any early 18th century. These are current 20th century divisions and concerns. Here are the Lynch speech tactics versus the real divide and rule tactics that were actually used in the early 18th century:

DIVIDE & RULE TACTICS
LYNCH SPEECH vs. HISTORICAL FACTS

Age Ethnic origin & language

Color (light vs. dark skin) African born vs. American born

Intelligence Occupation (house vs. field slave)

Fine hair vs. coarse hair Reward system for "good" behavior

Tall vs. short Class status

Male vs. female Outlawed social gatherings
It is certain that "Willie Lynch" did not use his divide and rule tactics on his "modest plantation in the West Indies."

20th CENTURY TERMS IN LYNCH SPEECH

There are a number of terms in the alleged 1712 Lynch speech that are undoubtedly anachronisms (i.e. words that are out of their proper historical time period). Here are a few of the words in the speech that were not used until the 20th century:

Lynch speech: "In my bag here, I have a fool proof method for controlling your Black slaves."

Anachronisms: "Fool proof" and "Black" with an upper-case "B" to refer to people of African descent are of 20th century origin. Capitalizing "Black" did not become a standard from of writing until the late 1960s.

Lynch speech: "The Black slave after receiving this indoctrination shall carry on and will become self re-fueling and self generating for hundreds of years."

Anachronism: "Re-fueling" is a 20th century term which refers to transportation.

OTHER STRANGE FEATURES

* William Lynch is invited from the "West Indies" (with no specific country indicated) to give only a short eight-paragraph speech. The cost of such a trip would have been considerable, and for the invited speaker to give only general remarks would have been highly unlikely.

* Lynch never thanked the specific host of his speech, he only thanked "the gentlemen of the Colony of Virginia, for bringing me here." Here, he is rude and shows a lack of etiquette. Also, no specific location for the speech was stated, only that he was speaking "on the bank [sic] of the James River."

* Lynch claims that on his journey to give the speech he saw "a dead slave hanging from a tree." This is highly unlikely because lynching African Americans from trees did not become common until the late 19th century.

* Lynch claims that his method of control will work for "at least 300 hundred years [sic]." First, it has gone unnoticed that the modern writer of the "speech" wrote three hundred twice ("300 hundred years"), which makes no grammatical sense. It should be "300 years" or "three hundred years." Second, the arbitrary choice of 300 years is interesting because it happens to conveniently bring us to the present time.

* Lynch claims that his method of control "will work throughout the South." This statement clearly shows the modern writer’s historical ignorance. In 1712, there was no region in the current-day U.S. identified as the "South." The geographical region of the "South" did not become distinct until a century after the alleged speech. Before the American Revolutionary War vs. Britain (1775-1783) the 13 original U.S. colonies were all slaveholding regions, and most of these colonies were in what later became the North, not the "South." In fact, the region with the second largest slave population during the time of the alleged William Lynch speech was the northern city of New York, where there were a significant number of slave revolts.

* Lynch fails to give "an outline of action" for control as he promised in his speech. He only gives a "simple little list of differences" among "Black slaves."

* Lynch lists his differences by alphabetical order, he states: "On top of my list is ‘Age’, but it is there only because it starts with an ‘A’. " Yet, after the first two differences ("age" and "color"), Lynch’s list is anything but alphabetical.

* Lynch spells "color" in the American form instead of the British form ("colour"). We are led to believe that Lynch was a British slaveowner in the "West Indies," yet he does not write in British style.

* Lastly, the name Willie Lynch is interesting, as it may be a simple play on words: "Will Lynch," or "Will he Lynch." This may be a modern psychological game being played on unsuspecting believers?

WHO WROTE THE LYNCH SPEECH?

It is clear that the "Willie Lynch Speech" is a late 20th century invention because of the numerous reasons outlined in this essay. I would advance that the likely candidate for such a superficial speech is an African American male in the 20s-30s age range, who probably minored in Black Studies in college. He had a limited knowledge of 18th century America, but unfortunately he fooled many uncritical Black people.

Some people argue that it doesn’t matter if the speech is fact or fiction, because white people did use tactics to divide us. Of course tactics were used but what advocates of this argument don’t understand is that African people will not solve our problems and address the real issues confronting us by adopting half-baked urban myths. If there are people who know that the Lynch speech is fictional, yet continue to promote it in order to "wake us up," then we should be very suspicious of these people, who lack integrity and will openly violate trust and willingly lie to our community.

Even if the Willie Lynch mythology were true, the speech is focused on what white slaveholders were doing, and there is no plan, program, or any agenda items for Black people to implement. It is ludicrous to give god-like powers to one white man who allegedly gave a single speech almost 300 years ago, and claim that this is the main reason why Black people have problems among ourselves today! Unfortunately, too often Black people would rather believe a simple and convenient myth, rather than spend the time studying and understanding a situation. Too many of our people want a one-page, simplified Ripley’s Believe or Not explanation of "what happened."

WILLIE LYNCH DISTRACTION

While we are distracted by the Willie Lynch urban mythology, the real issues go ignored. There are a number of authentic first-hand written accounts by enslaved Africans, who wrote specifically about the slave conditions and the slavemasters’ system of control. For example, writers such as Olaudah Equiano, Mahommah Baquaqua, and Frederick Douglass wrote penetrating accounts about the tactics of slave control.

Frederick Douglass, for instance, wrote in his autobiography, Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, that one of the most diabolical tactics of the American slaveholders was to force the slave workers during their six days off for the Christmas holiday to drink themselves into a drunken stupor and forget about the pain of slavery. Douglass wrote, "It was deemed a disgrace not to get drunk at Christmas; and he was regarded as lazy indeed, who had not provided himself with the necessary means, during the year, to get whiskey enough to last him through Christmas. From what I know of the effects of these holidays upon the slave, I believe them to be the most effective means in the hands of the slaveholder in keeping down the spirit of insurrection. Where the slaveholders at once to abandon this practice, I have not the slightest doubt it would lead to an immediate insurrection among the slaves…. The holidays are part and parcel of the gross fraud, wrong, and inhumanity of slavery."[4]

Also, many nineteenth century Black writers discussed the specific tactics of the white slaveowners and how they used Christianity to teach the enslaved Africans how to be docile and accept their slave status. The problem with African American and Black British revelry during the Christmas holidays and the blind acceptance of the master’s version of Christianity are no doubt major issues among Black people today. It is certain that both of these problems were initiated and perpetuated during slavery, and they require our immediate attention.

Many people who embrace the Willie Lynch myth have not studied the period of slavery, and have not read the major works or first-hand documents on this issue of African American slavery. As indicated above, this fictional speech is amazingly used as required reading by some college instructors. Kenneth Stampp in his important work on slavery in the American South, The Peculiar Institution (1956), uses the historical records to outline the 5 rules for making a slave:

1. Maintain strict discipline.
2. Instill belief of personal inferiority.
3. Develop awe of master’s power ( instill fear).
4. Accept master’s standards of "good conduct."
5. Develop a habit of perfect dependence.[5]

Primary (first-hand) research is the most effective weapon against the distortion of African history and culture. Primary research training is the best defense against urban legends and modern myths. It is now time for critical thinkers to bury the decade-old mythology of "William Lynch."

======================================================

NOTES

1. For example, see: Lawanda Staten, How to Kill Your Willie Lynch (1997); Kashif Malik Hassan-el, The Willie Lynch Letter and the Making of a Slave (1999); Marc Sims, Willie Lynch: Why African-Americans Have So Many Issues! (2002); Alvin Morrow, Breaking the Curse of Willie Lynch (2003); and Slave Chronicles, The Willie Lynch Letter and the Destruction of Black Unity (2004).

2. See: http://www.umsl.edu/services/library/blackstudies/narrate.htm

3. For this quote and the general Anne Taylor email exchanges regarding the authenticity of the Willie Lynch speech, see: http://www.umsl.edu/services/library/blackstudies/winbail.htm

4. Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (1845), p. 84.

5. Kenneth Stampp, The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South (1956), pp. 144-48.

—————————–

*Prof. Manu Ampim is an Historian and Primary (first-hand) Researcher specializing in African & African American history and culture. He is also a professor of Africana Studies. He can be reached at:

PO Box 18623, Oakland, CA (USA). Tel. 510-482-5791. Email: Profmanu@acninc.net.

The Willie Lynch Hoax


What some historians have had to say about this hoax:


It’s really sad that so many African-Americans not only beleive this "urban legend" (to put it in decent language), but that so many seem not to care that it is not really true. Anyone who does not care about the truth is in big trouble. For the record, the "Willie Lynch" letter was actually a recent creation, as evidenced by the language used. It was actually created in 1993 as a chain letter which spread like a bad disease throughout Black America. Research indicates that it was "loosely adapted" (to put it nicely) from a section of Anatoli Vinogradov’s fictional 1935 novel "The Black Consul" that dealt with Napoleon’s supposed plans to divide and conquer the Haitians during the Haitian revolution.

We Black scholars and professional historians should take this as a wake up call to get out of the ivory tower and teach the masses REAL Black history to keep them from being misled by the clever crackpots who collect cash by confusing the credulous. The REAL story of the damage done to Blacks from slavery may be found in actual slave narratives like "The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass," and detailed studies by legit scholars such as Carter G. Woodson’s "Miseducation of the Negro" and Kenneth Stampp’s "The Peculiar Institution."

There is a speech attributed to William Lynch which has been circulated on the internet and elsewhere, and which even Louis Farrakhan referred to at the Million Man March of October 16, 1995. By quoting extensively from the "Willie Lynch" speech, Mr. Farrakhan inspired the birth of a new term, Willie Lynch Syndrome, based on Lynch’s supposed speech.

this speech is a ridiculous fake, written in the 1990s (there’s no record of it being circulated before 1993).

First, the writer of this speech has made hardly any attempt to use the writing/speech style of the early 18th century.

Second, the author was not at all successful at steering clear of very specific anachronisms. We’ll name only the most glaring word-choice errors: fool-proof, used in the speech, actually dates from only 1902. The noun program is not used in the sense found in this speech until the 1830s. Self-refuelling is an utter anachronism, as the term refuelling did not arise until the early 20th century. Use of installed when referring to something other than a person did not first occur until the mid-19th century. Moreover, attitude did not refer to anything other than a physical position until the mid-19th century.

Third, a speaker would hardly need to so carefully identify the date and place of his speech, nor would he be likely to refer to King James as "our illustrious King, whose version of the Bible we cherish", unless he were a person of the 1990s making a clumsy attempt at writing a fake speech from the early 18th century. We cannot imagine why the writer introduces the theme of "James… our illustrious king" unless it is merely to emphasize that this took place in colonial times. Only someone creating a fake would need to try to establish a date for the speech within the fake itself. And, by the way, James was long-dead by 1712, the monarch of that era being Queen Anne. Finally, there is no evidence that a William Lynch from a "modest plantation" in the West Indies ever existed. There is, however, plenty of evidence for the existence of Captain William Lynch of Pittsylvania, Virginia, whom we have identified as the probable source of the verb lynch, and who was born fifty years after the date given in the speech above.

There are other obvious characteristics of the speech which render it a 20th-century creation. Some of these are discussed at a web site devoted to the subject and created by Anne Taylor, collection development librarian at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. By the way, Ms. Taylor seems to be one of the first to have posted the speech on the internet. She obtained it from the publisher of a free publication in St. Louis, The St. Louis Black Pages, dated 1994 but published in 1993. This is the earliest reference we’ve been able to find to the Willie Lynch speech in print. We think it’s time to send Willie Lynch’s speech to the urban legends department.

I suspect that the narrator’s name–Mr. Will Lynch–is a humorous put-on. Moreover, when Mr. Lynch thinks about
dividing the slaves, he forgets the division that was most obvious to a West-Indian planter: nationality–both African
ethnic divisions–Akan, Ibo, Mandingo and American divisions between so-called new Negroes [native Africans]
and those born in the New World. His old vs young and dark vs light divisions would be most peculiar among early
eighteenth-century African Americans (in both the West Indies and Virginia) who did not have such color gradations
as in our own time and who still maintained the near absolute African respect for age.

First, I think it is rather odd for a speaker, even in 1712, to go to such lengths to locate the speech in time and space. The hearers of a speech would have no need for such a preamble: they are there and then, and it is not so clear that this was being spoken for a later printing. It is, however, useful to encourage a later reader to place the speech in a time and place, and the florid style fits a contemporary, though usually false, expectation for florid speech by speakers of the time.

Next, "the bank of the James River," is too generic. If the speaker was making the reference as a matter of courtesy, it is unusual — indeed it would have been rude — not to thank the specific hosts: why on the banks of the River, and no reference to a planter at whose landing or house such a speech must have been given? This omission gives rise to another problem: why a speech on such a topic, and given by someone ostensibly imported by ship for the purpose of giving it, would be given to an open riverside assembly, and not in a house or meeting room. It is unlikely that a planter or planters would underwrite the passage of a speaker from the Indies and not have arranged a suitable place for invitees to hear such a speech without fear of being overheard by the lower classes.

Next (and I promise this is my last point about the geography) there is utterly no reason for anyone arriving in Virginia to have thought of a single thing, "As our boat sailed south on the James River". The James River flows north, not south, from Hampton Roads. The only way he would travel south on it is after having given the speech and not before. While such a reference would have been impossible for someone on the banks of the river, it does reinforce, to the modern reader challenged by geography that the speaker is in the South.

As for other reference to time, the speech refers the river as "named for our illustrious King, whose version of the Bible we cherish." While this is a bit afield of my own areas of specialty, I think this is a rather anachronistic manner of referring to the English Bible: such an overt reference to a "version" makes clear that there are other versions, something to me that sounds a tad odd in the mouth of such a declared Anglican. James’s 1611 English Bible had pretty so much fully replaced the Geneva Bible as the Bible of the English-speaking world by 1660, that in 1712, this sounds out of place. A reference to James as "patron of our Bible" would have been much more likely.

There are other textual problems that are better left to others (why is the speech so short when the speaker was imported and is speaking in an age of rhetoric as public entertainment? why "West Indies" and not an island name? why "color" and not "colour"? why bank and not "banks"?), but I wonder most about the reference to controlling slaves for 300 years.

Why would a person be invited from the West Indies to Virginia just to deliver an 8-paragraph speech? Back then, such a voyage would have been too strenuous and expensive for this, especially from an unknown person, especially when letter-writing was still the main form of long-distance communication? Of course, Lynch could have been in Virginia on business just before being spontaneously invited to speak. Still, if there had been a William Lynch whose word was so valued that he should deliver such a short speech in person rather than in writing, then certainly his speech would have been reprinted and commented upon in the local newspapers.

Also, he claims to want to give an "outline of action," yet no such plan is clearly given. It seems that a person who travels from the West Indies to Virginia for a speech would have elaborated more.

Thirdly, in paragraph 6, the author writes that "distrust is stronger than trust," yet only 5 sentences later, contradicts himself, saying, "it is necessary that your slaves trust and depend on us." Such a big contradiction would be expected from someone whose audience is listening intently for detailed information about specific steps in maintaining its livelihood through better control of his property. Why the switch in subjects from 3rd to 2nd person? Why not mention at least 2 or 3 methods of using dark-skinned slaves against light-skinned ones, and vice versa? Contradiction and lack of detail make me leery of any claims that this "speech" is not a hoax.

Furthermore, the obvious stab at the sore points in African-American psyche, such as gender and facial feature issues, makes me believe it was written for a contemporary audience, since "female vs. … male and … male vs. … female." would not have been so major a societal issue amongst slaves in 1712 in the United States.

As a historian, I am generally skeptical of smoking guns. Historical work, like forensic science, is more about the painstaking aggregation of facts that lead researchers to the most likely explanation, but rarely the only one. Slavery was an incredibly complex set of social, economic and legal relations that literally boiled down to black and white. But given the variation in size of farms, number of enslaved workers, region, crops grown, law, gender-ratios, religion and local economy, it is unlikely that a single letter could explain slave policy for at least 151 years of the institution and its ramifications down to the present day.

Considering the limited number of extant sources from 18th century, if this speech had been "discovered" it would’ve been the subject of incessant historical panels, scholarly articles and debates. It would literally be a career-making find. But the letter was never "discovered," but rather it "appeared" – bypassing the official historical circuits and making its way via internet directly into the canon of American racial conspiratoria.

On a more practical level, the speech is filled with references that are questionable if not completely inaccurate. Lynch makes reference to an invitation reaching him on his "modest plantation in the West Indies." While this is theoretically possible – the plantation system was well-established in the Caribbean by 1712 – most plantation owners were absentees who chose to remain in the colonizing country while the day-to-day affairs of their holdings were run by hired managers and overseers. But assuming that Mr. Lynch was an exception to this practice, much of the text of his "speech" is anachronistic. Lynch makes consistent reference to "slaves" – which again is possible, though it is far more likely people during this era would refer to persons in bondage simply as "Negroes." In the first paragraph, he promises that "Ancient Rome would envy us if my program is implemented," but the word "program" did not enter the English language with this connotation until 1837 – at the time of this speech it was used to reference a written notice for theater events.

Two paragraphs later he says that he will "give an outline of action," for slave-holders; the word "out-line" had appeared only 50 years earlier and was an artistic term meaning a sketch – it didn’t convey it’s present meaning until 1759. Even more damning is his use of the terms "indoctrination" and "self-refueling" in the next sentence. The first word didn’t carry it current connotation until 1832; the second didn’t even enter the language until 1811 — a century after the purported date of Lynch’s speech. More obviously, Lynch uses the word "Black," with an upper-case "B" to describe African Americans more than two centuries before the word came to be applied as a common ethnic identifier.

In popular citations, Lynch has also been – inexplicably – credited with the term "lynching" which would be odd since the speech promises to provide slave-holders with non-violent techniques that will save them the expense of killing valuable, if unruly, property. This inaccuracy points to a more basic problem in understanding American history.

The violence directed at black people in America was exceptional in the regard that it was racialized and used to reinforce political and social subordination, but it was not unique. Early America was incredibly violent in general – stemming in part from the endemic violence in British society and partly from the violence that tends to be associated with frontier societies. For most of its history, lynching was a non-racial phenomenon- actually it was racial in that it most often directed at white people. "Lynch law" was derived from the mob violence directed at Tories, or British loyalists, just after the American Revolution. While there is disagreement about the precise origins of the term – some associate it with Charles Lynch, a Revolution-era Justice-of-the-Peace who imprisoned Tories, others see it as the legacy of an armed militia founded near the Lynche River or the militia captain named Lynch who created judicial tribunals in Virginia in 1776 – there is no reference to the term earlier than 1768, more than half a century after the date given for the speech.

Given the sparse judicial resources (judges were forced to travel from town-to-town hearing cases, which is where we get the term "judicial circuit") and the frequency of property crimes in the early republic, lynching was often seen as a form of community justice. Not until the 1880s, after the end of Reconstruction, did "lynching" become associated with African Americans; gradually the number of blacks lynched each year surpassed the number of whites until it became almost exclusively directed at black people late in the century.

On another level, the Willie Lynch speech would seem to give a quick-and-easy explanation of the roots of our much-lamented "black disunity." You could make similar arguments about the lingering effects of a real historical document like the 1845 tract "Religious Instruction of Negroes" – written by a proslavery Presbyterian minister — or the British practice of mixing different African ethnicities on slave ships in order to make communication – and therefore rebellion – more difficult. But this too is questionable – it presumes that whites, or any other diverse group, do not face divisive gender issues, generation gaps and class distinctions. Willie Lynch offers no explanation for the white pro-lifer who guns down a white abortion-provider or white-on-white domestic violence. He does not explain political conflicts among different Latino groups or crime in Asian communities. Unity is not the same as unanimity and in the end, black people are no more disunited than any other group of people – and a lot more united than we give ourselves credit for.

 Native American Reservations And Problems

By Chance Kelsey, chancellorfiles.com

Chance: Some Native American reservations have members among them who have become very anti black Native American Indian. The Cherokee nation and Seminole nation both voted to eliminate their black Indians who descended from black Indians long ago. In the case of the Seminole nation the government forced them to take back (reinstate) their black Indian members. The government cut off federal funding and did not allow the Seminole nation to practice gaming (casinos and gambling) until the Seminole agreed to reinstate their black members, and the Seminole nation did. Many black Indians feel that it is racism and money that is playing part in this anti black Indian campaign that certain Indian nations are engaged in.

 

I have noticed that when whites claim to be Indian they are accepted and their is little protest from the native Americans. Many of these whites do have some native American ancestry but the reality is, that when you gaze at their phenotypes (physical appearance – physical body) you see very little or no visible signs of native American ancestry what so ever. These people look totally white in phenotype. Only a very small percentage of these whites show visible signs of Native American in their Physical appearance.

 

Even when those who show visible Native American ancestry in their appearance — often it is not very much Native American ancestry showing in their appearance. These people still look overwhelmingly white and are accepted as white by whites – because they are predominantly with.

Yet these whites are not given a big hassle by Native Americans for claiming native American even when the evidence that many whites claim to prove they are Native American is not very strong. The evidence in many cases is word of mouth, they were told by relative they had Native American ancestry. DNA testing has proved that some blacks and whites who claim Native America ancestry actually do have it. DNA also reveals that some have more Native American ancestry than others.

Some of these whites who are admitted into the Native American tribes are the result of intermarriages that happened with grand parents or mom and dad or grandparents. While many blacks have well documented evidence to show that they have had relatives for one hundred years or more who have been members of Native American tribes.

The problems are racism and money, the federal government provides money to the various Indian reservations. Also the casinos and gambling produce a lot of money for Native Americans too. Members of the Native American tribes receive free health care and monthly checks. These checks vary in money, some checks go all the way up to 15,000 and some more. Even with all of the money that Native American casinos make, and the monthly checks many Native Americans on the reservations remain poor and live in poverty.

It has been reported by the Federal government, news media, and Native Americans themselves that many native Americans do drugs, some women engage in prostitution, alcoholism, crime, violence, theft, burglary, and other crimes. The poverty situation should be less because they have monthly checks and free health care (medical care). But do to all of the social ills that were mentioned above and other factors many Native Americans live in poverty, some spend their checks to support personal vices, and this helps keep then in poverty also. Some parts of certain Native American reservations don’t even have electricity, cable TV, or the Internet but yet they have all of this money from casinos and government funding. On some reservations the native American leaders are trying their best to address the lack of electricity, cable TV, Internet, and other basic services.

Chance: The fewer members on the native American tribe role the more money for those who are left on the role. Removing black Indians allows more money. I have seen more blacks with visible Native American ancestry than whites with visible native American ancestry. And, some of the blacks whom are being kicked out of the native American tribes look like they have more Native American ancestry than many of the whites in the tribe.

 

Over all the whites and blacks in the Native American tribes look like they are predominantly white or predominantly black. So racism is playing a role in why blacks are being removed too. Some Americans have brought up the question should the American government continue to fund these native American reservations with money, casinos, and their own independent sovereign nations. So Americans feel that the Native American reservations have sunk down to the level of casinos, gambling, and free rides of the American government’s charity. Some feel that the Indian reservations should be bought out by giving all the members individual lump sum checks.

I look at it like this, if the American government had agreements with the Native Americans then the government should honor those agreements. At the same time the government should also force th Native American Indians to honor their agreements with the descendants of black Native Indians, that anyone who has black native American ancestry and descended from black native American Indians, and the evidence is verifiable they should keep those black in their Native American tribes.

Written during the 21 st century by Chance (chancellor)

 

By Chance Kelsey, chancellorfiles.com

ONE DROP: My Father’s Hidden Life–A Story of Race & Family Secrets by Bliss Broyard

Two months before he died of cancer, renowned literary critic Anatole Broyard called his grown son and daughter to his side, intending to reveal a secret he’d kept all their lives and most of his own: he was black. Born in the French Quarter in 1920, Anatole began to conceal his racial identity after the family moved from New Orleans to the Bedford-Stuyvesant neighborhood of Brooklyn and his parents resorted to "passing" in order to get work. From his bohemian days in the cafés of Greenwich Village in the 1940s to his ascension in the ranks of the literary elite, he continued to maintain the façade.

Serving as a daily book critic for the New York Times for more than a decade, and as a columnist and editor at the New York Times Book Review for several years after that, Anatole was an influential voice in American culture. To his children he was a charming and attentive father who had strived to raise his family in the lush enclaves of Connecticut and Martha’s Vineyard, providing an upbringing far removed from his own childhood. But even as he lay dying, the truth was too difficult for him to admit, and it was finally their mother who told Bliss and Todd that their sheltered New England childhood had come at a price.

In her remarkable memoir, Bliss Broyard examines her father’s choices and the impact of this revelation on her own life. Seeking out unknown relatives in New York, Los Angeles, and New Orleans, she uncovers the 250- year history of her family in America, and chronicles her own evolution from privileged Wasp to a woman of mixed-race ancestry. The result is a beautifully crafted and touching portrait of her father, and a provocative examination of the profound consequences of racial identity.

Read related article Anatole Broyard The Creole   

Bliss Broyard (Photo) is the daughter of the Late New York Time book critic Anatole Broyard       

 

 

 

 

 

 

By Chance Kelsey, chancellorfiles.com  

One of the ways to recognize a political dictator is by the clothes he wears. Often in third world and second world countries the dictator will wear a military uniform. The clothes a person wears reveals something about their personality, as well as the shoes they wear. I am talking about the style clothes you wear out in public most of the time. I not really talking about the name brand of your clothes, but the style and the image that you project based upon the way you are dressed. If you see a man in a business suit five days out of the week well that tells you something about him or the type of job he is working. Even certain jobs demand that you dress a certain way to project an image. The way a woman dress reveals something about her also. Gang members even have a way of dressing that often informs society that they are gang members.

Personality also goes along with the way you dress. A priest wears his religious garments, a police officer, Doctor, Judge, nurse, fire fighter, etc all have a style of clothing that goes along with their career. Therefore, the military uniform is the official style of clothing for a dictator. An anti democracy personality, an authoritarian attitude, frequent injustices, propensity for violence against the citizens, corruption, sexual misconduct, unjustifiable executions, a feeling of superiority, extreme anger, and incompetence are just some of the many defects these dictators share.

Here are a list of dictators who wore military uniforms.

  Idi Amin former dictator of Uganda

Born: c. 1924
Birthplace: Uganda
Died: August16, 2003
Location of death: Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Military dictator who ruled the African country of Uganda from 1971 to 1979, whose reign was characterized as "a reign of terror laced with buffoonery", who is said to have murdered up to 500,000 of his real and imagined enemies, whose actions in business sent the country into economic chaos, who called Hitler a hero, who named himself Dada or "Big Daddy" and declared himself "president for life", but who was overthrown by the Tanzanian troops in 1979, only to be exiled into a life of luxury in Saudi Arabia, died August 15 in Jiddah, Saudi Arabia of kidney failure at age 80.

 Mao Zedong

Born: December 26, 1893 — Birthplace: Xiang Tan (Shao Shan), Hunan, China
Died: September 9, 1976
Location of death: Beijing, China 
 

Mao was the leader of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. Millions of Chinese people died of starvation under mao’s dictatorship.   

 

 

 

 Josef Stalin

Born: December 18, 1878
Birthplace: Gori, Georgia
Died: March 5, 1953
Location of death: Moscow, Russia
Cause of death: Cerebral Hemorrhage
Remains: Mummified, Moscow, Russia

Stalin was general secretary of the Communist party of the Soviet Union’s Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. Despite his formal position being originally without significant influence, and his office being nominally but one of several Central Committee Secretariats, Stalin’s increasing control of the Party from 1928 onwards led to his becoming the de facto party leader and the dictator of his country; a position which enabled him to take full control of the Soviet Union and its people.

 Adolf Hitler

Born: April 20, 1889
Birthplace: Braunau-am-Inn, Austria
Died: April 30, 1945
Location of death: Fuehrerbunker, Berlin, Germany
Cause of death: Suicide
Remains: Cremated, In a box in a state museum, Moscow, Russia

 He  was the leader of National Socialist (Nazi) Germain Workers Party. He was appointed Chancellor of Germany in 1933, and "Führer" in 1934, remaining in power until his suicide in 1945.

 

 Yasser Arafat  (Arafat’s birth name was Mohammed Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini)

(محمد عبد الرؤوف القدوة الحسيني )

Born: August 24, 1929
Birthplace: Cairo, Egypt
Died: November 10, 2004
Location of death: Paris, France
Cause of death: Cerebral Hemorrhage
Remains: Buried, Ramallah, West Bank, Palestine
He was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization and President of the Palestinian National Authority.[2] In 1994, Arafat received the Nobel Peace Prize together with Yitzhak Rabin, and Shimon Peres, for the negotiation of the 1993 Oslo Peace Accord.[3] Arafat has been widely recognized for leading the Fatah organization, which he founded sometime in 1958-1959.

 Augusto Pinochet

(Full name Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte)

Born: November 25, 1915
Birthplace:  Valparaiso, Chile
Died: December 10, 2006
Location of death: Santiago, Chile
Cause of death: Complications of Surgery
was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990. His rule instituted broad economic reforms and a severe and highly controversial campaign against the leftist political parties, as well as human rights abuses against civilians.

   Francisco Franco

Born: December 4, 1882
Birthplace: Ferrol, Spain
Died: November 20, 1975
Cause of death: Heart Failure
Remains: Buried, Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caídos 

He was a dictator that headed and later formally became head of state of Spain from October 1936, and of all of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975.

 

  Pol Pot

(real name Saloth Sar)

Born: May 19, 1925
Birthplace: Prek Sbauv, Kampong Thum, Cambodia
Died: April 15, 1998
Location of death: Anlong Veng, Cambodia
Cause of death: Heart Failure
Remains: Cremated
He was the leader of the Khmer Rouge and the Prime Minister of Cambodia (It was officially renamed the Democratic Kampuchea during his rule) from 1976 to 1979, having been de facto leader since mid-1975.

 

  

Saddam Hussein

Born: April 28, 1937
Birthplace: Ouja, near Tikrit, Iraq
Died: December 30, 2006
Location of death: Baghdad, Iraq
Cause of death: Execution

Dictator of Iraq who killed many Iraqis, kurds, and shites during his brutal reign. He controlled the country through military and secret police forces. He was executed in Iraq by the Iraqi government for some of the civilian deaths that occured during his regime (Saddam gave orders to have civilians killed).  

Villains And Money

Villains And Money
Chance: It is said that the love of money is the root of all evil – money itself is not bad and evil but the love of it makes certain humans do drastic things to gain it. Many philanthropic organizations donate money to help finance various causes like fighting against poverty.

Many charities also donate money to help the poor, and some organizations donate money to help fund research in the medical field or in some other field that will benefit humanity with new found solutions for various problems that society has not found a solution for. So money is beneficial also.
OSAMA BIN LADEN
Osama Bin Laden inherited millions of dollars from his father when his father died. What makes Osam bin laden and others like him so unique is that he had money to finance his political ideologies. Look at all of the suffering Osama Bin Laden also had time on his hand to plan terrorist attacks around the world.
Osama Bin Laden and his followers were responsible for some terrorist attacks in Kenya and Tanzania Africa that killed hundreds of people. Osama had time on his hands to sit around thinking about his political ideology, and money afforded him this luxury called time. Osama Bin Laden is responsible for the SEPTEMBER 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on America.
 Osama Bin Laden sent nineteen men to America to carry out these terrorist attacks against America. It was money that allowed Osama to sit plot and plan this attack on America. There possibly were other powerful people involved but Osama was one of the master minds if not the chief master mind. Money and the power is good but very dangerous if they ends up in the wrong hands. 

   
  THE BENEFITS OF POVERTY
Chance: Poverty is a weapon that keeps certain negative people under control, so poverty has a benefit then. Imagine if all of the poor people throughout the world had millions of dollars.
Many of them would become very productive citizens but some would become more negative and wicked — and spread more evil and destruction on through out the world. It is also good that certain people are unemployed — because if they had a job they would bring their negative pathological behaviors to work — and display negative behavior at work thus making the work place miserable for their fellow co-workers. So some people need to be poor and suffer poverty’s consequences, and hopefully this suffering will mould their characters into better human beings.
If these poor people learn from their sufferings then some day they could become productive citizens in society. What if Osama Bin Laden had been born poor many people would still be alive.
So I say that poverty is God’s weapon among humans to keep certain wicked people under control. Poverty is used to temporally keep many of us humans humble, but many of us rise above it. And sometimes we have our ups and downs and temporarily lack money. Many of us go through periods like this but these periods are not permanent. Being broke financially is only temporary being poor could last a lifetime if situations and circumstances don’t manifest that would otherwise give us opportunities.

In life it is better if certain people are or become poor because if they have a lot of money they would spread evil through out the world. There are many good people who are poor also, and so we should never say that because these people are poor they deserve to remain poor.

I am just saying certain people need to become poor and certain individuals need to stay poor for the betterment and safety of humanity. Never look down on poverty because it’s GOD’S reminded to us that we are not all powerful and we can be humbled through lack (no money).   
 
By Chance Kelsey
 
Written by Chance during the 21st century

Villains And Money

Villains And Money
Chance: It is said that the love of money is the root of all evil – money itself is not bad and evil but the love of it makes certain humans do drastic things to gain it. Many philanthropic organizations donate money to help finance various causes like fighting against poverty. Many charities also donate money to help the poor, and some organizations donate money to help fund research in the medical field or in some other field that will benefit humanity with new found solutions for various problems that society has not found a solution for. So money is beneficial also.
OSAMA BIN LADEN
Osama Bin Laden inherited millions of dollars from his father when his father died. What makes Osam bin laden and others like him so unique is that he had money to finance his political ideologies. Look at all of the suffering Osama Bin Laden also had time on his hand to plan terrorist attacks around the world.
Osama Bin Laden and his followers were responsible for some terrorist attacks in Kenya and Tanzania Africa that killed hundreds of people. Osama had time on his hands to sit around thinking about his political ideology, and money afforded him this luxury called time. Osama Bin Laden is responsible for the SEPTEMBER 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on America.
 Osama Bin Laden sent nineteen men to America to carry out these terrorist attacks against America. It was money that allowed Osama to sit plot and plan this attack on America. There possibly were other powerful people involved but Osama was one of the master minds if not the chief master mind. Money and the power is good but very dangerous if they ends up in the wrong hands.   
  THE BENEFITS OF POVERTY
Chance: Poverty is a weapon that keeps certain negative people under control, so poverty has a benefit then. Imagine if all of the poor people throughout the world had millions of dollars.
Many of them would become very productive citizens but some would become more negative and wicked — and spread more evil and destruction on through out the world. It is also good that certain people are unemployed — because if they had a job they would bring their negative pathological behaviors to work — and display negative behavior at work thus making the work place miserable for their fellow co-workers. So some people need to be poor and suffer poverty’s consequences, and hopefully this suffering will mould their characters into better human beings.
If these poor people learn from their sufferings then some day they could become productive citizens in society. What if Osama Bin Laden had been born poor many people would still be alive.
So I say that poverty is God’s weapon among humans to keep certain wicked people under control. Poverty is used to temporally keep many of us humans humble, but many of us rise above it. And sometimes we have our ups and downs and temporarily lack money. Many of us go through periods like this but these periods are not permanent. Being broke financially is only temporary being poor could last a lifetime if situations and circumstances don’t manifest that would otherwise give us opportunities.

In life it is better if certain people are or become poor because if they have a lot of money they would spread evil through out the world. There are many good people who are poor also, and so we should never say that because these people are poor they deserve to remain poor. I am just saying certain people need to become poor and certain individuals need to stay poor for the betterment and safety of humanity.

Never look down on poverty because it’s GOD’S reminded to us that we are not all powerful and we can be humbled through lack (no money).   
 
By Chance Kelsey
 
Written by Chance during the 21st century

Hip Hop And Slavery

By Chance Kelsey, Chancellorfiles.com

 Chance: During the time period of slavery in America many black slaves would sing songs. Some of these songs were religious, other songs were about a variety of things like relationships or love, and other songs expressed how many blacks felt about being in bondage. In general most slave songs typically consisted of four-line stanzas that alternated with four-line choruses, and within that structure, solo verses alternated with refrains. The majority of stanzas most often took the aaab form (three repeated lines and a refrain) or aaba form (two repeated lines, one new line, then a repeat of the first line). Occurring less frequently was the abcd form (no repetition of text).
Music allows the soul to express how it feels on the inside, and music and sex are the only two things that come close to expressing the inexpressible.

Black people are what I call the music race, the way they express how they feel through a variety of musical styles has inspired even many other ethnic groups throughout the world. The blues is a form of black music that originated during slavery — and during the Jim Crow area of racial segregation the blues became more popular among black Americans. Blacks added more styles and instruments such as the guitar and harmonica to the blues during the era of racial segregation.

Just like music helped give blacks a form of emotional and mental expression during slavery, Hip hop culture gives many young blacks a voice to express how they feel about society today. Hip hop is a culture and rap music is a part of that culture. There are many forms of rap music both positive and negative. It all depends upon what social views and experiences in life the rapper has gone through. Gangster (gangsta) is just one form of rap music — there is religious rap, social conscious rap, political rap and many other forms. But gangsta (gangster) rap is the most popular form of rap currently because of the ruff urban life experiences that many young Hip Hop artists who are gangsta rappers have gone through in life. 

 Chance: So whether one agree or disagree rap music in its various forms express how many young people feel about various issues. Some young people just enjoy the music even though they have never experienced the life style the rapper is speaking about. Just like the black slaves sung songs based upon how they felt while in bondage. Gangsta rap is a form of the blues, white parents in the 1950s and 1960s would criticize the black music of their time. They did not want their children to listen to it. But many whites both young and old started to enjoy the same black music forms they once criticized. Then came Elvis Presley a white man singing black music and whites loved him and the rest is history.


Hip hop music is the music of choice that many blacks and members of other ethnic groups choose to express how they feel whether positive or negative. Will gangsta rap ever become unpopular yes, when life gets better for millions of young urban blacks who suffer from poverty, lack of education, police brutality, lack of love, violence, ghettoes, drug infested neighborhoods, high out of wed lock births, etc decrease to a very low percentage. Just like when slavery ended blacks stopped singing certain songs. Until then gangsta rap and hip hop culture will be an outlet of expression for millions of young black people.

By Chance (Chancellor)

Written during the 21st century by Chance